Bulgarian lessons

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Postby gothwolf » 2007-08-11, 19:47

Благодаря за признането. Стремя се да популизирам родния ни език и мисля, че наистина има хора, които го оценяват и това ми дава стимул да продължа, макар че адски много ме мързи напоследък. Но обещавам, скоро ще има урок № 7... Между другото - добре дошъл тук! 8)

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Postby marzeliv » 2007-08-12, 9:41

gothwolf wrote:Между другото - добре дошъл тук! 8)


Мерси. :D
Имам предложение. Защо не качваш записите на упражненията на постоянен сървър, а не на speedyshare. Такъв например е http://my.opera.com

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Postby gothwolf » 2007-08-12, 9:47

marzeliv wrote:Защо не качваш записите на упражненията на постоянен сървър, а не на speedyshare. Такъв например е http://my.opera.com


Защото не съм знаел за това. Ще се поправя. :oops:

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Postby gothwolf » 2007-08-20, 12:15

Урок № 7

Текст

На море

Антон е с родителите си на море. Той е много щастлив, тъй като за първи път вижда море, но въпреки това умее да плува. Докато той плува в морето, неговите родители са на плажа. Баща му, както винаги, чете вестник, а майка му - лежи под чадъра. Има много хора на плажа и е изключително шумно. Деца си играят с пясъка наоколо, а останалите си почиват, доволни от хубавото време –слънцето пече и от време на време се появяват малки облачета, които донасят малко прохлада.
След половин час Антон излиза от водата и казва на родителите си, че иска да се прибират. Те прибират багажа си, щастливи от деня.

Нови думи

родители (pl.) – parents
море (n.) – sea
на море – on sea
много + adj. – very
щастлив - happy
тъй като = понеже – because
за първи път – for the first time
въпреки това – nevertheless
умея да + verb – can + verb
умея да плувам ¬– I can swim
докато – while
плувам (3) – to swim
плаж (m.) – beach
на плажа – on the beach
както винаги – as usual
вестник (m.) – newspaper
лежа (2) – to lie
под – under
чадър (m) – umbrella
има – there is / there are
много + noun in plural - a lot of
изключително – extremely
шумно - noisily, loudly
дете (n.) - child
деца (pl.) – children
играя (1) – to play
пясък (m.) – sand
наоколо – around
останалите (pl.) - the rest people
почивам си – have a rest, relax
доволен от - pleased with, content with, satisfied with
хубавото време (n.) – the nice weather
време (n.) – time; weather
слънце (n.) – sun
слънцето пече – the sun shines
от време на време - from time to time
появявам се (3) - appear, come into view/sight
малък – little, small
облак (m.) – cloud
донасям (3) – to bring
малко + noun – a little; some
прохлада (f.) - coolness, cool;freshness
излизам от (3) – get out of
вода (f.) – water
казвам на (3) – tell to
искам (3) – to want
искам да – to want someone to do something
иска да се прибират – He want they to go home
прибирам се (3) – to go home
прибирам + Acc. (3) – to take in, to pack
багаж (m.) – luggage
ден (m.) - day

Download the record of the text from here!

The Grammar part comes soon. :wink:
Last edited by gothwolf on 2007-08-22, 19:01, edited 1 time in total.

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Postby gothwolf » 2007-08-22, 10:50

Grammar

1. Да constructions

If you want to use a verb with another verb you have to put да between both verbs. But you have to be careful because the both verbs have to be conjugated:

Искам (I want)
Искаш (you want)
Иска (he want)

Ям (I eat)
Ядеш (you eat)
Яде (he eats)

So: I want to eat = искам + да + ям
You want to eat = искаш + да + ядеш
He wants to eat = той иска + да + яде
...

But if you want someone else to do the act:

I want you to eat – искам (ти) да ядеш.
I want you to go there – Искам (ти) да отидеш там.

See! The both verbs are conjugated in different way. The doer of the first act is „аз” (and that’s why искам). But the doer of the second act is “ти” (and that’s why ядеш, отидеш).

Here are you more examples:
Отивам да ловувам. – I go hunting.
Обичам да слушам музика. – I love listening to music.
Мразите ли да четете? – Do you hate reading?
Той иска да се прибират вкъщи. – He wants they to go home. … etc…

2. The impersonal verbs “има” and “няма”


Има = there is, there are – both singular and plural
Няма = there is not, there are not – both singular and plural

Има дете в парка. – There is a child in the park.
Има деца в парка. – There are (some) children in the park.
Има ли захар в чая? – Is there any sugar in the tea?
Има много книги. – There are lots of books.

Няма човек на улицата. – There is no person on the street.
Няма ли нови книги? – Are not there any new books?

But be careful!!!
Има means “he, she, it have” too
Няма means “he, she, it doesn’t have” too

Той има много книги. – He has lots of books.
Той няма пари. – He hasn’t got any money.

3. Aspect of the verbs.

Ok, boys and girls... Here comes one of the most difficult part of every Slavic language – the aspects of the verbs. If somebody of you learns other Slavic language(s) probably (s)he knows what I’m talking about.
The aspect of the verb is a way of looking at the action. There are two aspects of the verb in Bulgarian (and in the other Slavic languages) - imperfective (несвършен вид) and perfective (свършен вид).
The main difference between the imperfective and the perfective aspects in Bulgarian is that the perfective aspect implies a completed single action, while the imperfective aspect simply does not give any implication whether the action is single or not, whether it is completed or not. Very often, though, when opposed to the perfective aspect, the imperfective forms imply the opposite of what the perfective forms imply - a single but uncompleted action (i.e. action in progress) or an action that has been successfully completed more than once (i.e. iterative, habitual action).
Here are some examples:

Утре ще чета книга. – Tomorrow I’ll read a book.
Утре ще прочета книгата. Tomorrow I’ll read the (whole) book.
Утре ще дочета книгата. – Tomorrow I’ll read the book till its end.

Ще ти пиша всеки ден. – I’ll write to you every day. (that will be an usual act it the future and that’s why the perfect aspect of the verb is used.)
Ще ти напиша писмо. –I’ll write you a letter. (That will happen again – so the imperfect aspect is used.)

Мога да разказвам тази история много пъти. – I can tell this story many times. (”много пъти” (many times) – that means that will be an usual act in the future)
Искам да разкажа тази история. – I want to tell this story. (the act will be done only one time).

How to form verbs from perfect into imperfect aspect?

1. With the aid of prefixes:
Кажа – разкажа; питам – попитам, бера – събера, уча – науча,
2. with the aid of suffixes which might change the conjugation type of the verb:
Превръщам (3) – превърна (1), намирам (3) – намеря (2) , взимам (3) – взема (2), разказвам (3) – разкажа (1)...

Usually the verbs from the third conjugation type are in inperfect aspect as you see.

It is from a great use when you learn a new verb to learn its perfect or imperfect form because there is a difference when you say:
Превръщам се в котка. – I’m becoming a cat.
Ще се превърна в котка. – I’ll become a cat.
Ще се превръщам в котка. – I’ll become a cat. (but that means that you’ll become a cat many times, not only once.)
Превръщах се в котка. – I became a cat. (for many times but now I’m a human again)
Превърнах се в котка. – I became a cat. (and I am still a cat)

!!! The perfect aspect of the verbs usually can not be used in present tense. !!!

There are lots of verbs that have similar forms for the both aspects: имам (to have), арестувам (to arrest), женя се (to get married), отричам (to deny), управлявам (to govern, to rule over) and many others…


Okay... have a look here


Anything unclear :wink:

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Postby nettchelobek1 » 2007-08-27, 18:55

Would it be possible for you to write some exercises to practice the topics of this lesson?
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Postby gothwolf » 2007-08-28, 7:42

Translate into Bulgarian:
1. He wants to swim tomorrow.
2. Help me to write this letter!
3. We countinue reading the book.
4. Do you enjoy listening to music?
5. They want you to come.
6. I’m trying to find my book.

Translate into English:
1. Има ли молив в стаята?
2. Тя има ли молив в чантата?
3. Има ли той свободно време?
4. Има ли време да отидем там?
5. Има няколко момчета, които играят навън.

Choose the correct form:
1. Ще купиш ли / Ще купуваш/ ли мляко като се пребереш?
2. Разкажи / Разказвай / ми за пътуването!
3. Той ще ти пише / напише / всеки ден.
4. Искам да намеря / намирам / тетрадката си.
5. Искам да ти помогна / помагам / всеки ден с домашните работи.

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Postby duko » 2007-08-28, 8:44

Мерси много, ето и моя опит

Part 1
[spoiler]
1. Той иска да плува утре
2. Помогни ми да напиша това писмо
3. Продължаваме да четем книгата
4. Харесва ли ти да слушаш музика?
5. [Те] Искат да дойдеш
6. Опитвам да си намеря книгата
[/spoiler]

Part 2
[spoiler]
1. Is there a pencil in the room?
2. Does she have a pencil in the purse?
3. Does he have free time?
4. Is there enough time for us to go there?
5. There are some boys that are playing outside.
[/spoiler]

Part 3
[spoiler]
1. Ще купиш ли мляко като се пребереш?
2. Разказвай ми за пътуването!
3. Той ще ти пише всеки ден.
4. Искам да намеря тетрадката си.
5. Искам да ти помагам всеки ден с домашните работи.
[/spoiler]
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Postby gothwolf » 2007-08-28, 8:51

Много добре, duko. Имаш грешка само тук:
[spoiler]2. [s]Разказвай[/s] Разкажи ми за пътуването! (You will tell for the trip only once.)
[/spoiler]

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Postby RCA » 2007-09-24, 13:48

Well… it’s a bit weird to deal with a Slavic language which has virtually no cases :? Another perplexing thing is the presence of articles :shock: Hmm… and I suspect there will be more surprises ahead (like the Perfect tenses and so on). So the language looks really intriguing and I’d like to get to know it as better as possible. I’ve already studied the first 7 lessons and am waiting impatiently for the next one :D Could you please keep on teaching it to us?

Meanwhile, I’d like to ask you to record some words in Bulgarian, since your Speedyshare uploads have already been deleted due to their old date. I’m especially interested in how you pronounce "и" after "ж, ш, ц"; "е" at the beginning of a word or after a vowel, and, of course, the famous Bulgarian "ъ" (in various positions).

P.S. Some small corrections to Lesson 7 :wink:

gothwolf wrote: Ще ти пиша всеки ден. – I’ll write to you every day. (that will be an usual act it the future and that’s why the imperfective aspect of the verb is used.)
Ще ти напиша писмо. –I’ll write you a letter. (That will happen again – so the [s]im[/s]perfective aspect is used.)
'A vita è 'n'affacciata 'e fenesta.

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Postby gothwolf » 2007-09-28, 7:17

RCA wrote:Well… it’s a bit weird to deal with a Slavic language which has virtually no cases :? Another perplexing thing is the presence of articles :shock: Hmm… and I suspect there will be more surprises ahead (like the Perfect tenses and so on). So the language looks really intriguing and I’d like to get to know it as better as possible. I’ve already studied the first 7 lessons and am waiting impatiently for the next one :D Could you please keep on teaching it to us?


Yeap! I find Bulgarian weird, too. But it's interesting exactly because of its differences from the other Slavic languages.
Well, about lesson # 8 - I still don't have any ideas but I'll try to make up something soon.

RCA wrote:Meanwhile, I’d like to ask you to record some words in Bulgarian, since your Speedyshare uploads have already been deleted due to their old date. I’m especially interested in how you pronounce "и" after "ж, ш, ц"; "е" at the beginning of a word or after a vowel, and, of course, the famous Bulgarian "ъ" (in various positions).


No problem!

RCA wrote:P.S. Some small corrections to Lesson 7 :wink:

gothwolf wrote: Ще ти пиша всеки ден. – I’ll write to you every day. (that will be an usual act it the future and that’s why the imperfective aspect of the verb is used.)
Ще ти напиша писмо. –I’ll write you a letter. (That will happen again – so the [s]im[/s]perfective aspect is used.)


:oops: I'm not good at grammar terms.

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Postby gothwolf » 2007-09-28, 8:06

“и” after “ж”

лъжица – spoon
жито – wheat
живот - live
лъжи - lies
преживявам – go through

„и” after „ш”

свърши – it ended
широк - wide
шивач - tailor
чаршия - bazaar, market.
нашите – our (plural, definite form)

„и” after „ц”

циганин - Gypsy
прецизен - precise
конци - threads
нарцис - narcissus
цистерна - cistern

"е" at the beginning of a word

есен - autumn
езеро - lake
Елица – Elitza (a Bulgarian name)
език – language, tongue
ехидна - echidna

"е" after a vowel

мечтае – he dreams
люлее – he cradles
събрание - meeting; gathering; assembly
вълнение - excitement
друго е – it’s another thing
бижу е – it’s a jewel
There are no such combinations: ъе, ое, уе

The “ъ”-sound

къща - house
ъгъл – corner
сътресение - shaking, concussion
пръв – първи - first
кръв - blood
сандък – chest
търся – to look for
събирам – to gather

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Postby RCA » 2007-10-16, 9:27

Oh, thank you gothwolf, I’ve only now noticed your recent post with the records… :oops: I was looking at the date on the topic list and it was almost the same as of your previous post, so I missed the records which have been deleted since… I’m terribly sorry, but could you please recover them?
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Postby gothwolf » 2007-10-19, 7:01

RCA, Don't worry. Here are the files again... :wink:

“и” after “ж”

лъжица – spoon
жито – wheat
живот - live
лъжи - lies
преживявам – go through

„и” after „ш”

свърши – it ended
широк - wide
шивач - tailor
чаршия - bazaar, market.
нашите – our (plural, definite form)

„и” after „ц”

циганин - Gypsy
прецизен - precise
конци - threads
нарцис - narcissus
цистерна - cistern

"е" at the beginning of a word

есен - autumn
езеро - lake
Елица – Elitza (a Bulgarian name)
език – language, tongue
ехидна - echidna

"е" after a vowel

мечтае – he dreams
люлее – he cradles
събрание - meeting; gathering; assembly
вълнение - excitement
друго е – it’s another thing
бижу е – it’s a jewel
There are no such combinations: ъе, ое, уе

The “ъ”-sound

къща - house
ъгъл – corner
сътресение - shaking, concussion
пръв – първи - first
кръв - blood
сандък – chest
търся – to look for
събирам – to gather

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Postby Levo » 2007-12-27, 13:45

Hi! I have a question, I thought I rather contaminate this topic, rather than the discussion group.
Is that true that Macedonian language (the Slavic one) is literally the same as Bulgarian? How much is the difference between the two? Bigger than between Czech and Slovak?
Thank you in advance!

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Postby mecho » 2007-12-27, 21:52

Здравей, Лево!
The difference between Bulgarian and Macedonian is indeed very little. Most Bulgarians tend to consider Macedonian as some kind of "bastard" Bulgarian (which, actually, isn't completely wrong, as Macedonian emerged quite recently from western Bulgarian dialects).
However, I believe Macedonian could be roughly described as " Bulgarian with some Serbian influence + an almost completely phonetical writing system"
The almost comletely phonetical writing system is typical for "young" languages, as you might guess.

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Postby Levo » 2007-12-28, 12:51

mecho wrote:Здравей, Лево!
The difference between Bulgarian and Macedonian is indeed very little. Most Bulgarians tend to consider Macedonian as some kind of "bastard" Bulgarian (which, actually, isn't completely wrong, as Macedonian emerged quite recently from western Bulgarian dialects).
However, I believe Macedonian could be roughly described as " Bulgarian with some Serbian influence + an almost completely phonetical writing system"
The almost comletely phonetical writing system is typical for "young" languages, as you might guess.

Thank you very much for your reply. I am thinking hardly on starting Bulgarian. This is my last hope of studying any Slavic language.

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Postby Arcane » 2007-12-28, 15:19

I am thinking hardly on starting Bulgarian. This is my last hope of studying any Slavic language.


What's the reason you feel discouraged to learn a Slavic language? If you're considering Bulgarian, my blind guess is the cases.
If you decide to study we're here to help :waytogo: Knowing Bulgarian you'll be able to understand Macedonian as well. It is based on the Western dialects of Bulgarian.

This is the Bulgarian point of view and the claims of the other countries involved

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Postby Levo » 2007-12-29, 18:49

Arcane wrote:
I am thinking hardly on starting Bulgarian. This is my last hope of studying any Slavic language.


What's the reason you feel discouraged to learn a Slavic language? If you're considering Bulgarian, my blind guess is the cases.
If you decide to study we're here to help :waytogo: Knowing Bulgarian you'll be able to understand Macedonian as well. It is based on the Western dialects of Bulgarian.

This is the Bulgarian point of view and the claims of the other countries involved


Your guess is right :) Though I still don't know if it is a less complicated language than for example Croatian just because there are no cases. Any comments?
I read both links. Interesting. There were some interesting refers in it, are you able to understand Serbian too just of Bulgarian?
And of course there are other reasons for learning Bulgarian, the cultural ones. The flag has the same colours as our one and I've already been to Bulgaria and it was a positive surprise, now you are also EU-members and also people seem to look more familiar to my Hungarian eyes than for example Romanians or Serbians.

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Postby Arcane » 2008-01-07, 13:13

Levo wrote:
Your guess is right :) Though I still don't know if it is a less complicated language than for example Croatian just because there are no cases. Any comments?
I read both links. Interesting. There were some interesting refers in it, are you able to understand Serbian too just of Bulgarian?


First, I'm sorry for replying so late but I was on a long vacation :)

I can't say how difficult Bulgarian would be for you. It's considered difficult by most non-Slavic speakers. Judging from how much my ex-roommate studied for her exams in Practical Hungarian (she studies philology) I can guess it wouldn't be easier for you.

Also, it depends on what you mean by understanding Serbian. Reading Serbian magazines, for example, I understand the main topic and a lot of words describing the overall details. But I wouldn't say that for the oral communication. I never dared to make experiments in banks and institutions like I did with people in the street. But once again I don't have much experience with Serbian.

I can tell you more about Russian and how much you'll understand of it if you know Bulgarian. 60% of the words are absolutely identical. 20% you could easily guess without using a dictionary*. That means you'll have a pretty good passive knowledge being able to read literature without a problem.

Btw I'm surprised Bulgarians look more familiar to your eyes than Romanians. Which places have you visited here?
:)

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* Those percents are stated in a Russian grammar by К. Пехливанова, Народна просвета, 1978.


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