Basque beginners' course

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Zoroa
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Postby Zoroa » 2006-09-26, 9:51

Thx Nero ! You're more than welcome to learn it ;)

Today's lesson will be about the three "participles".
With them, you'll be able to extand your scope of expression.

1. The "past" participle

This is the one you get when learning a new verb. Usually, it ends in tu(du), which is a legacy from Latin. This is how nouns/adjectives are turned into verbs, etc... e.g.: pentsatu = to think.

Gazte: young --> gaztetu: to make young/ to rejuvenate

Better: ohe: bed --> ohera: to bed --> oheratu: to go to bed ;) Your imagination's the limit (and also uses...)

Other verbs ends in "n" (egin), i (etorri), etc...

This is a past participle used to make present perfect (pp + izan/ukan).

There is another past participle, used with state verbs like egon, eduki. This is the state past participle, in ta(da). (Sorry when I put (da) it means that, for euphonic reasons, the ending in t becomes d if the verb ends in "n").

Let's have it clearer, shall we ?

When I take the verb to tire: nekatu and I am wondering: how would I be able to express the feeling of my tiredness? I analyze the whole stuff as follows:

1. I am tired : not very transitive, let's not use ergative
2. Hopefully I won't be tired tomorrow, so this is a transitory state, let's use "egon"
3. You've said egon ? okay so the pp may be in "ta", for it describes a state
4. Can you remind me of the word for "tire" ? Yes, it's nekatu (sounds very Japanese, doesn't it?)

So the sentence is "Ni nekatuta nago".

2. The "present" participle

Well, in fact, it's not really a present participle, but rather a nominalized form of the verb.

Take the past participle, remove the ending (tu, n, i whatever...), then add t(z)en (you can use both ten/tzen). Just for the notice, ten is te + n, n being a locative (non) form. Indeed, adding te makes the nominalized form of the verb (egite(a): the fact of doing).

When you use the present participle + izan/naiz, you obtain a kind of countinuous present.

The difference between past participle/present participle is more in terms of aspects, like in English.

Okay, now that you begin to understand it a bit more, let's see the present participle for a couple of verbs

joan => joaten
jan => jaten
etorri => etort(z)en (note that the second r is dropped)
ibili => ibilt(z)en
kantatu => kantat(z)en
etc...

Last, but not least, a small tip to make you quasi-bilingual.
As you've seen, the present participle is declined.

What if we take the allative (nora) form ?
You make an allative participle ! Only to be used after movement verbs (ibili, joan, etc...)

He goes to eat in the restaurant
Janetexera jatera doa.

What if we take the locative genitive (nongo) form ?
You make a purpose participle

In the urban jungle, men kill to survive.
Hiriko oihanan gizonek bizirik irauteko hil dute. (Nice sentence ?)

3. The future participle

The easiest for the end. Just add "go" at the past participle. And use it like the past participle.

I will eat in the restaurant
Janetxean jango dut.

Hope I did not kill you for that lesson, I'll try to proofread it just to check the spellings/mistakes.

Zoroa ;)
Deviens qui tu es !
Nietzsche "Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra"

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Postby Zoroa » 2006-09-27, 9:53

Today we'll learn one big, big grammar point in euskara. Once you know this, you'll have covered the major difficulties of euskara. The rest is "small" technical points, and of course, use of the language. I'll split this course in two.

We'll talk about... dative.

Codename: Nori case

1. About names/adjectives in dative

No big troubles here.

Reminders

With a consonnant:


Let's take the word mutil (a boy).

Absolutive: mutil mutila mutilak
Ergative: mutilek mutilak mutilek
Dative: mutili mutilari mutilei

With a vocal:

Let's take the word arreba (boy's sister)

Absolutive: arreba arreba arrebak
Ergative: arrebek arrebak arrebek
Dative: arrebai arrebari arrebei

(with the rule that a+a=a, a+e=e, etc...)

Nothing difficult here ? You have in front of you the three cases that articulate the whole Basque conjugation system. If you don't see what I mean, read part 2.

2. Nor-Nori-Nork, the Basque verbal song...

If you remember it well enough, you know that the auxiliary declines according to the subject and the direct object. Now I can tell you that it does the same with indirect objects.

Let's take simple examples. With the verb eman (to give), this is really easy.

I give a present to my brother
Nik opari bat nire anaiari eman diot.

Diot: D+i+o+t
D= direct object 3rd sing
I= root of ukan
O= indirect object 3rd sing
T= subject 3rd sing

I give a present to my brothers
Nik opari bat bire anaiei eman diet

Diet: D+i+e+t
D= direct object 3rd sing
I= root of ukan
E= indirect object 3rd plur
T= subject 3rd sing

These declension is called nor-nori-nork, because of the order in the auxiliary (in comparison with "simpler" nor-nork).

The plural for direct object is no more "it" but "zki"

I give two presents to my brothers
Nik bi opari nire anaiei eman dizkiet.

Okay, I think it is enough for today !!!

See you next time for the end of the dative case.

Zoroa ;)
Last edited by Zoroa on 2006-09-28, 7:19, edited 1 time in total.
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Postby Hubi » 2006-09-27, 18:14

Zoroa wrote:The plural for direct object is no more "it" but "zki"

I give two presents to my brothers
Nik bi opari nire anaiei eman diet.


And where is the "zki"? :roll:
Eta non "zki"-a da? :roll:
Wie wird das chemische Element Brom gewonnen?
Man nimmt eine Hand voll Brombeeren und lässt sie zur Erde fallen. Die Beeren verbinden sich mit Erde zu Erdbeeren und Brom wird frei.

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Postby Zoroa » 2006-09-28, 7:16

And where is the "zki"?
Eta non "zki"-a da?


That's what I was re-reading this morning :D Sorry I unshamefully copy-pasted the sentence above to make the other one...

It's been corrected.
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Postby Zoroa » 2006-09-28, 10:57

Just to cheer you up between two lessons, a song by the famous Basque band Oskorri.

http://www.musikazblai.com/oskorri/eusk ... en-balada/

Euskaldun berriaren balada (the ballad of the new Basque speaker).

Barakaldokoa naiz eta
daukat paro obrero
horregatik euskaltegira
noa ni egunero.
Euskaraz bazekien nire
bisabueloak edo
baina ni roillo hontaz
orain arte zero,
goizero, goizero
AEKan bezero,
batzuetan ero,
besteetan bero
baina ez dut milagro
handirik espero.

Goizean goiz hori behar dur
motibazio bila.
Euskara ez da ingelesa
baina ez dago hila,
egun askotan pensatzen dut
hau dela inutila,
Nik ez daukat kulparik
ez banaiz abila,
hau da hau makila,
aditz klase pila,
hitzak beste mila;
animo mutila
esaten dute baina
ez da hain fazila.

Ideia hau nire buruan
ez dakit noiz hasi zen
baina batzutan ez naiz hemen
gehiegi dibertitzen,
lau gauzak izen bat dute eta
gauza batek lau izen,
kokoteraino nago
klaseak aditzen
pegatak ipintzen
ta dirua biltzen ...
nola sartu nintzen
ez dut konprenitzen
lau on bat bilatzeko
ez badu serbitzen.

(Translation in Spanish provided in the link)
Deviens qui tu es !

Nietzsche "Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra"

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Postby culúrien » 2006-10-06, 3:56

Just hear to tell you I restarted Basque...and I'll probably be annoying you with lots of stupid questions :)
استیسی

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Zoroa
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Postby Zoroa » 2006-10-06, 18:56

I am awaiting all your questions... and glad you restarted it to ;)
Deviens qui tu es !

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Postby Zoroa » 2006-11-25, 1:35

Sorry I have been absent because I moved to the US. But nown, like the phoenix, I am back.

As we left, we learnt how to decline nouns and thus adjectives in the dative case. I gave you an overview of the nor-nori-nork conjugation.

Now to make your dream come true, I'll give you a more extensive table of the conjugation in the nor-nori-nork case

Nor-Nori-Nork dream table

I gave you the form with a sing 3rd person direct complement. To make sentences with a plur 3rd person direct complement, just substitute DIZKI to DI.


(I gave you the forms according to the pronouns on the left and on top)

Nik Zuk Honek Guk Zuek Haiek
Niri didazu dit didagu didazue didate
Zuri dizut dizu dizugu dizute
Honi diot diozu dio diogu diozue diote
Guri diguzu digu diguzue digute
Zuei dizuet dizue dizuegu dizuete
Honi diet diezu die diegu diezue diete

Easy no?

Let's have a few examples, shall we?

He's broken her heart: Bihotza hautsi dio

We have dirteid their houses: Zuen etxeak zikindu dizkizuegu

They have stolen your money ("to you"): Zure dirua erabasi dizute

The Basque have even a song for that (translation in Spanish here

Eusko Jaurlaritzak dio
dirurik ez dagoela
baina zer kasualitate
gurea falta zaiela.

Baina, laister ikusiko dute, joder
potrotaraino gaudela, joder
potrotaraino gaude.

Nor-nori-nork
baldintza ta subjuntibo, joder
baldintza ta subjuntibo, joder
baldintza badakigu.

Ertzainek erosi dute
Kriston helikopterua
baina zerta(ra)ko nahi dute
holako aparatua.

Baina, laister ikusiko dute, joder
potrotaraino gaudela, joder
potrotaraino gaude.

Nor-nori-nork
baldintza ta subjuntibo, joder
baldintza ta subjuntibo, joder
baldintza badakigu.



Tough part? Let's see something easier now. Imagine you are walking in the Euskal Herria, you see a typical Basque house and you wonder (metaphysical question question) whether the rooftop is made out of slate or tile. You go to the landlord, and as you know two cases: zerez (how?) and nongo (of whom), you can create a new composed case:

Zerezko: The material case

You speak these very words "Zure teiltatua, zerezkoa (da): arbil edo teilezkoa?"

Note that

1. Put an a after the possessive pronoun
2. The case mark falls after the second noun. However you can also hear arbilezkoa edo teilezkoa
3. Put an a after the interrogative pronoun to substitute for the name (the one of what, litterally)

A few words to enhance your vocabulary

Zur (wood)
Paper (paper)
Lur (earth)
Teila (tile)
Arbel (slate)
Harri (rock)
Burdin (iron)
Kobre (copper)
Urre (gold)
Oihal (fabric)
Plastiko (plastic)


That's all for today folkscitos.

I need your feedback if you have some, it's very helpful.

Zoroa ;)
Deviens qui tu es !

Nietzsche "Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra"

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Postby Hubi » 2006-11-26, 10:06

*dies*
*hil da*
Wie wird das chemische Element Brom gewonnen?
Man nimmt eine Hand voll Brombeeren und lässt sie zur Erde fallen. Die Beeren verbinden sich mit Erde zu Erdbeeren und Brom wird frei.

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Postby Mikael » 2007-02-02, 23:55

I really wish someone could pick this lesson up where Zoroa left off. I was beginning to follow the lessons seriously, but they just stop. Can anyone else do it?

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Postby Zoroa » 2007-02-09, 4:09

I just left off because I have a lot of work and did not receive any feedback for the lessons (only a few, like Hubi) I'll go on soon.

Zoroa ;)
Deviens qui tu es !

Nietzsche "Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra"

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Postby skoll » 2007-02-28, 13:39

nettchelobek1 wrote: When I checked up on Basque pronunciation, I was told that it's quite similar to Spanish one,of course, I am acquainted with the clusters such as tx, tz and so on
Well, thanks in advance. :lol:
I know about TX, which would be in my opinion the correct spelling to represent the sound of English/Spanish CH in translations contexts (since its exact phonetic representation,and X is used as SH-sound in Portuguese, Catalan, Sicilian and old Spanish as well, if I am not wrong with the last one), but what about TZ? What is the exact sound of Z or TZ in comparison to english or spanish?

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Postby Zoroa » 2007-03-04, 0:24

The Z sound is like the s in English. The TZ is pronounced like TS.
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Postby Zoroa » 2007-03-04, 0:52

A new fresh lesson. What would you like to know? Maybe comparative forms.

Basically when you use comparative in many languages, what you have:

My house is bigger than my friend's house

1. The "comparee" (my house)
2. The "comparer" (my friend's house)
3. the term of comparison: "big"
4. the degree of comparison: here superiority, indicated by "er"

Basque adds another subtlety: the nature of the comparison term.

1. Qualitative comparaison

Easy: Take the adjective, add "ago". Like with names, some adjectives double their final Rs, like eder.

so let's take our liminary example.

Big: handi --> handiago (bigger)

Now to indicate the "comparer", you use the postposition "baino". do not forget that before baino comes subject cases.

Well, I think we have everything, don't we?

The sentence is now

Nire etxea nire lagunaren extea baino handiagoa da.

Note that you can never say in Euskara my house is smaller... You have to say my house is not bigger!!! Positive attitude...

Nire etxea ez da handiagoa nire lagunaren etxea baino.

2. Quantitative comparison

If the comparison is about a quantity and not a quality, you use two postpositions: baino for the comparer and gehiago (+) / gutiago (less) for the adjective. Well, gutiago is not really a postposition but guti + ago, i.e. the comparative form of guti/gutxi which means little. Gehiago is another relicate, though the word gehi doesn't mean anything anymore.

What about an example?

I have more / less money than you

Nik diru gehiago / gutiago zuk baino dut

That was easy!

Zoroa ;)[/b]
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Postby Guillem » 2007-03-04, 11:48

Wow, Zoroa, this seems fascinating. I'm taking notes and maybe I'll take part in your forum soon, when I'm done with my essays and exams :)

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Postby Mikael » 2007-03-04, 16:54

Thank you so much for continuing the lessons! I'm going to restart, seeing as it's been a while, but I'll catch up sometime.

:thanks:
*~

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Postby Zoroa » 2007-03-04, 18:56

Thanks Guillem and Michael.

Because you were good boys, I am giving you the end of the lesson about comparison.


1. Equality

Just as you had to differentiate qualitative and quantitative before, you will find the two differences here.

Bezain: as... as (qualtitative)
Bezainbat: as (much)... as (quantitative)

For the syntax, remember that Basque thinks that way:

I am as tall as you: I am tall as you (are)
Ni zu bezain altua naiz

I have as much money as you
Nik zuk bezainbat diru dut.

2. Superlative

It's too easy that it will not last long.

Add "ena" at the end of the adjective:

Handiena (the biggest), ederrena (the nicest), zuzenena (the most honnest).

A Basque surname that you can now translate: Maitena (the most beloved)


Now you know everything about comparison!

Zoroa ;)
Deviens qui tu es !

Nietzsche "Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra"

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Postby Zoroa » 2007-03-09, 3:44

Today, we'll learn some vocabulary / typical constructions. This is not the funniest part of learning a language, but anyway, you'll see, it can turn out to be very useful. Let's learn how to express spatial postioning:

1. THE important rule

Euskara sounds very mathematic to me. So let me introduce the rule as a math theorem :D

Rule:

In Euskara, as you've seen with comparison, the referentiel is compulsory. To position someone or something, you will need to position then vis-a-vis someone or something else. In Euskara, you are never "on the right side", but always "on the right side of xxx".

The word used to introduce the referential is a used as a noun, not really a preposition. Preposition are really few in Euskara, and are often relicate from other words.

Corollary:

The word used to introduce the referetial is at the non case.

The referential is at the noren case

2. A list of words

Gainean / Gainian: on top of (gain: top)
Azpian, Beherean, Pean: below

Eskuinean <> Ezkerean (Esku = hand, Eskuin: "right-wing"; Ezker is the word from which comes izquerdia in Spanish): On the right <> On the left

Aitzinean: In front of (Aitzina!: let's go!)
Gibelean: Behind

Barnean: Inside
Kanpoan: Outside

Ondoan: next to

Inguruan: around

3. A few examples and situations

In a bar:

Jonek hiru baso edan ditu. Mahaiaren pean daude!!!
John has drunk three glasses. He's under the table!

With a girl:

Nire besoak bere gerriaren inguruan ezarri ditut.

I've put my arms around her waist.

(Although this construction is right, the best way to say it - very native - is: Nire besoez
bere gerria inguratu dut: "I've surrounded her waist by my arms")

When forgetting names of people you've just met:

Nor zure aitzinean duen tipoa da ?

Who is the guy in front of you?


Well, that's quite enough for today. Just a last word by Harold Lee, translated in Euskara:

Zoriona ez dago gure kanpoan gertatzen denaren mendean, baizik eta gure barruan gertatzen denaren mendean

Happiness is not "in what's depending" (mendean) of what's happening oustide us but also in the what's depending" of what's happening inside us

Happiness doesn't only depend on what's outside us but also on what's inside

Zoroa ;)
Deviens qui tu es !

Nietzsche "Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra"

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Postby Zoroa » 2007-03-14, 1:44

Now that you are close to mastership of Euskara, let's talk about a grammar point that will enable you to better your sentences.

Just before, let me remind you of a small point we saw before:

Direct complement are often at the partitive case when the verb is negative:

Ez dut dirurik: I do not have money
Ez dut arrainik jan: I do not eat fish.

Keep this feature in mind for what's to come

1. YES, I think that...

Basque legendary stubborness requires you to be able to express what you think. To do so you need to know how to make subordinated clauses.

Let's begin by the beginning, i.e. some vocabulary:

to think / to believe: uste (meaning I think that, I believe that)


So: uste dut: I think (I've thought that, therefore I think)

Now the magic word: -ela. Like -en for a relative clause, ela is a postclitic, and merge like -en

We have to think the Basque way for clauses: ust like relative clauses or genitives, what determines is always put before.

I think that my friend has lost his keys:

would be in Euskara

My friend his keys lost has (that) think I

Nire lagunak bere giltzak galdu dituela uste dut.

I have forgotten that Peter do not undertand

A little syntax difference:

Ahazu dut Peterek ez duela ulertu.

2. NO, I do not think that...

Remember the refresh at the beginning

-ela becomes -enik, marked by the partitive

I do not think that my friend has lost his keys

Ez dut uste nire lagunak bere giltzak galdu dituenik.


3. Whether 'tis nobler for the mind to suffer...

Let's recall one old synthetic friend: jakin, to know.

I know you know but,...

Nik daki(zki)t
(Hark) daki(zki)
Guk daki(zki)gu
Zu daki(zki)zu
Zuek daki(zki)zue
(Haiek) daki(zki)te

Btw I know that you know: Dakizuela badakit !

Here we talk about indirect interrogative subordinated clauses.

I wonder whether...
I do not know whether...

As the answer requires yes or no, take the famous -en and add ez --> enez

I wonder whether he will come

Galdetzen dut etorriko duenez (as it has a "negative" meaning, the clause goes afterwards)

We'll see other indirect interrogative clauses later when we talk about interrogation.


Enough for today!

Zoroa ;)
Deviens qui tu es !

Nietzsche "Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra"

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Postby Zoroa » 2007-03-17, 2:45

Enough wondering: if yesterday you learnt how to wonder, today you'll learn how to express it in questions.

1. If your answer is yes or no...

Another very interesting particle: al. Does it come from its Arabic counterpart, no one knows for sure. It is used like that:

Q: Etorriko al dira? Will they come?
A: Bai, etorriko dira: yes they will come
A': Ez, ez dira etorriko: no, they will not come

An important rule:

As English makes the distinction between some and any in interrogative and negative sentences, Basque does the same for the direct complement.

We saw that it was in the partitive case when used in a negative sentence. The same happens for interrogative sentences:

A: Emazte bat dut: I have a wife
N: Ez dut emazterik: I do not have a wife
I: Emazterik al duzu? Do you have a wife?

It's also used with izan to translate: there is/ there are.
Another way to do so is to used egon.

Gizon bat da = Dago gizon bat/ Ez da gizonik/ Gizonik al da?

Note that al is not compulsory.

When used with the emphatic "ba" (compulory for synthetic verb used alone), it goes between the ba and the verb:

Ba al zatoz? Do you come (you would say colloquially: Bazatoz?)


2. If you want to ask more precise question

You know Nor, which means "who" and can be declined to all the cases.

Now let's see some interrogatives pronouns

Nor / Nork (plr) Nortzuk: Who
Non: Where
Nora: To where
Nondik: Where from?
Zer (plur) Zertzuk: What / which
Nola: How
Zenbait: How many

etc...

Now you have a few more words to use and you basically know how to make questions.

Oh yes, I promised to show you how to make indirect interrogatives:

Basically, use the interrogative pronoun and add "-en" at the end of the clause.

I know who he is

Badakit nor den (or Nor den dakit)

I know how he does it

Badakit nola egin duen.

Etc...
Deviens qui tu es !

Nietzsche "Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra"


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