[Serbian] Language Course

Moderator: kibo

Giraffa
Posts: 360
Joined: 2004-05-02, 16:30
Real Name: Eugenia
Gender: female
Location: Moscow
Country: RU Russia (Российская Федерация)

Postby Giraffa » 2004-09-19, 12:39

Здраво!

Зовем се Жења и живим у Москви.

До виђења! :)

User avatar
Strigo
Posts: 4724
Joined: 2002-12-27, 13:16
Real Name: Carlos Reyes Barría
Gender: male
Location: La Florida
Country: CL Chile (Chile)
Contact:

Postby Strigo » 2004-09-21, 21:52

Hi, I'm back!

It seems nothing much has happened, that's good, I thought I'd be late!

Well :) Bye!
Aquí es donde traduzco diariamente música israelí del hebreo al español

[flag]cl[/flag] native; [flag]en[/flag] fluent; [flag]il[/flag] lower advanced ; [flag]pt-BR[/flag] read fluently, understand well, speak not so badly (specially after some Itaipava); recently focusing on [flag]sv[/flag][flag]ar[/flag] and I promised myself to finish my [flag]ru[/flag] New Penguin Russian Course: A Complete Course for Beginners in less than a month (12/oct/2013). Wants to wake up one day speaking [flag]ka[/flag][flag]lt[/flag] and any Turkic language.

User avatar
Nukalurk
Posts: 5842
Joined: 2004-04-23, 20:45
Gender: male
Location: Berlin
Country: DE Germany (Deutschland)

Postby Nukalurk » 2004-09-23, 15:45

I'm also waiting eagerly. ;)

Giraffa
Posts: 360
Joined: 2004-05-02, 16:30
Real Name: Eugenia
Gender: female
Location: Moscow
Country: RU Russia (Российская Федерация)

Postby Giraffa » 2004-09-24, 21:01

Ми смо из Москве :)

User avatar
kibo
Language Forum Moderator
Posts: 6942
Joined: 2003-12-16, 18:35
Gender: male
Country: RS Serbia (Србија)

Postby kibo » 2004-09-26, 15:20

Treća Lekcija: Imenice i pridevi (II deo)
Lesson 3: Nouns and adjectives (part 2)

In the previous lesson, we learnt the basics of building the plural of the nouns. Unforzunately for you, the things aren't that simple. Today we're going to learn more about some peculiarities of the plural forms in some word.

We've said that masculine nouns ending in a consonant form their plural by adding -i (prijatelj -> prijatelji). This practically means that 'prijatelj-' is the stem for forming plural. But some nouns (that are masculine and end in a consonant), don't add the suffix -i directly, but the broaden the stem with -ov- or -ev- and then add -i. Let's take an example: for the word grad (town, city) you would expect that the plural is gradi. But no, it isn't. Between grad- and -i you must insert -ov-, so the correct plural of grad is gradovi.

Let's look at some of the nouns that have this -ov-/-ev- broadening:

cvet (flower) -> cvetovi (flowers)
stan (flat/appartment) -> stanovi (flats/appartments)
ključ (key) -> ključevi (keys)
muž(husband) -> muževi(husbands)

If you're wondering how you'll know when the noun has an -ov- broadening or when it has an -ev- broadening or when it has no broadening at all, the only advice I can give you is to learn them by heart. Alternatively, if you have a really good dictionary, it will tell you all the peculiarities about the noun.

There are some nouns that have double forms - with and without broadening - and both are corect: lišaj (lichen) -> lišajevi or lišaji (lichens) (more examples below). This practically means that you can use both forms equally. In some dialects one form may be more common than the other but in standard language both forms are correct.

Now let's move on to some on to some "easier" stuff. There is another irregularity concerning the plural of masculine nouns ending in a consonant, this time specifically ending in -k, -g and -h. These 3 are the only velar consonants in the serbian language. The irregularity consists of changing these 3 dental consonants: c, z and s. So, before adding the suffix -i, you will change the final k into c, g into z, and h into s.

učenik (student, pupil) -> učenici
jezik (language) -> jezici
bubreg (kidney) -> bubrezi
kovčeg (coffin) -> kovčezi
orah (nut) -> orasi

This rule does not apply to those nouns that have stem broadening with -ov-/-ev-, k/g/h are left unaltered there:

rak (crab) -> rakovi
strah (fear) -> strahovi
krug (circle) -> krugovi

But for those nouns that have double forms double forms I mentioned above, in the the unbroadened form you will change k/g/h into c/z/s, while in the broadened form k/g/h, will of course alter:

vuk (wolf) -> vukovi or vuci
pauk (spider) -> paukovi or pauci
duh (ghost, spirit) -> duhovi or dusi (though dusi is less common in ordinary speech, both are standard)

Now that we've hopefully processed all that, let's go back to the adjectives. We've said the basic form is the masculine singular (lep), and then we add -a for femenine singular (lepa), -o for neuter singular (lepo), -i for masc.pl (lepi), -e for fem.pl. (lepe), and -a for n.pl. (lepa).

But look at exercise 1B, sentence 6 ("Oni su dobri") and the vocabulary explanation bellow ("dobar = good"). How come dobar has an "a", but dobri doesn't? This has to do with a very common alternation in serbian, which we can call "the disappearing a". It happens that in some words that end in consonant + a + consonant and that have more than one syllable (dobar, kratak, vredan), that a drops out in other forms of the words (mostly when you add a vowel suffix). Let's see how we will make other forms adjectives.

dobar (good) - dobar, dobra, dobro, dobri, dobre, dobra
kratak (short) - kratak, kratka, kratko, kratki, kratke, kratka
vredan (hardworking; valuable) - vredan, vredna, vredno, vredni, vredne, vredna

Note that this doesn't apply to monosyllabic words like mlad (young), star (old), jak (strong) - they keep their a's in all forms.

Why does this alternation happen? Well, long ago the Proto-Slavic language had a semivowel ь (yer), which in serbian developped either into an a or it dropped out. I assume before that happened the forms of the adjective dobar were: добьр, добьра, добьро. In the first case ь became a, and in the next two it dropped out.

It's worth mentioning that this alternation also happens in some nouns when they form plural

lovac (hunter) -> lovci
starac (old man) -> starci
lanac (chain) -> lanci


And at the end of this lesson I'll give you the numbers from 0 to 10:

0 = nula
1 = jedan (jedna, jedno)
2 = dva (dve, dva)
3 = tri
4 = četiri
5 = pet
6 = šest
7 = sedam
8 = osam
9 = devet
10 = deset

The numbers 1 and 2 follow the gender of the noun. (Jedan prijatelj = one friend, jedna žena = one woman, jedno selo = one village; dva prijatelja = two friends, dve žene = two women, dva sela = two villages)

Now the exercises.
Goals:
 (es) ➜ C1 (DELE)
 (de) ➜ B2 (Goethe-Zertifikat) / C1
 (sv) ➜ B1/B2

User avatar
kibo
Language Forum Moderator
Posts: 6942
Joined: 2003-12-16, 18:35
Gender: male
Country: RS Serbia (Србија)

Postby kibo » 2004-09-26, 15:21

Exercise 3A: Give the plural of these nouns

1. put (m. -ev-) = road
2. knjiga (f.) = book
3. plan (m. -ov-) = plan
4. radnik (m.) = worker
5. krst (m. -ov-) = cross
6. jutro (morning) = morning
7. siromah (m) = a poor man
8. vuk (m., double form) = wolf
9. duh (m., double form) = ghost
Goals:
 (es) ➜ C1 (DELE)
 (de) ➜ B2 (Goethe-Zertifikat) / C1
 (sv) ➜ B1/B2

User avatar
kibo
Language Forum Moderator
Posts: 6942
Joined: 2003-12-16, 18:35
Gender: male
Country: RS Serbia (Србија)

Postby kibo » 2004-09-26, 15:23

Exercise 3B: Complete the following table

1. dobar - _________ - _________ (good)
2. ljubazan - _________ - _________ (polite)
3. _________ - dosadna - _________ (boring)
4. _________ - _________ - sitno (tiny)
5. tanak - _________ - tanko (thin)
Goals:
 (es) ➜ C1 (DELE)
 (de) ➜ B2 (Goethe-Zertifikat) / C1
 (sv) ➜ B1/B2

灰鹰(Gray Eagle)
Posts: 105
Joined: 2003-10-07, 20:34
Gender: female
Location: Chisinau, MD

Ja sam nai-prvi

Postby 灰鹰(Gray Eagle) » 2004-09-26, 16:32


Putevi
Knigi
Planovi
Radnici
Krstovi
Jutre
Siromasi
Vukovi - Vuci
Duhovi - Duci


Dobar -Dobra - Dobre
Ljubazan - Ljubazna - Ljubazno
Dosaden - Dosadna - Dosadno
Siten - Sitna - Sitno
Tanak - Tanka - Tanko
Last edited by 灰鹰(Gray Eagle) on 2004-09-26, 16:51, edited 1 time in total.

User avatar
kibo
Language Forum Moderator
Posts: 6942
Joined: 2003-12-16, 18:35
Gender: male
Country: RS Serbia (Србија)

Re: Ja sam nai-prvi

Postby kibo » 2004-09-26, 16:47

@ 灰鹰(Gray Eagle)

Knige
Jutra
Duhovi - Dusi

Dosadan - Dosadna - Dosadno
Sitan - Sitna - Sitno


:D
Goals:
 (es) ➜ C1 (DELE)
 (de) ➜ B2 (Goethe-Zertifikat) / C1
 (sv) ➜ B1/B2

灰鹰(Gray Eagle)
Posts: 105
Joined: 2003-10-07, 20:34
Gender: female
Location: Chisinau, MD

Postby 灰鹰(Gray Eagle) » 2004-09-26, 16:56

So many mistakes :?

Giraffa
Posts: 360
Joined: 2004-05-02, 16:30
Real Name: Eugenia
Gender: female
Location: Moscow
Country: RU Russia (Российская Федерация)

Postby Giraffa » 2004-09-26, 18:43

Exercise 3A: Give the plural of these nouns

1. putevi
2. knjige
3. planovi
4. radnici
5. krstovi
6. jutra
7. siromasi
8. vuci/vukovi
9. duhovi/dusi

Exercise 3B: Complete the following table

1. dobar - dobra - dobro
2. ljubazan - ljubazna - ljubazno
3. dosadan - dosadna - dosadno
4. sitan - sitna - sitno
5. tanak - tanka - tanko

User avatar
kibo
Language Forum Moderator
Posts: 6942
Joined: 2003-12-16, 18:35
Gender: male
Country: RS Serbia (Србија)

Postby kibo » 2004-09-26, 18:56

Bravo, Giraffa, not a single mistake!!!


Браво, Жирафа, без и једне грешке!!!

:D
Goals:
 (es) ➜ C1 (DELE)
 (de) ➜ B2 (Goethe-Zertifikat) / C1
 (sv) ➜ B1/B2

User avatar
E}{pugnator
Posts: 2076
Joined: 2002-06-24, 17:27
Real Name: Expug
Gender: male
Location: Vitoria da Conquista (living in Belo Horizonte)
Country: BR Brazil (Brasil)

Postby E}{pugnator » 2004-09-26, 21:54

Exercise 3A: Give the plural of these nouns

1. putevi
2. knjige
3. planovi
4. radnici
5. krstovi
6. jutra
7. siromasi
8. vuci/vukovi
9. duci/duhovi
Learning Georgian, Mandarin Chinese, Russian and Papiamentu from scratch. Trying to brush up my Norwegian up to an advanced level.

User avatar
E}{pugnator
Posts: 2076
Joined: 2002-06-24, 17:27
Real Name: Expug
Gender: male
Location: Vitoria da Conquista (living in Belo Horizonte)
Country: BR Brazil (Brasil)

Postby E}{pugnator » 2004-09-26, 21:55

Exercise 3B: Complete the following table

1. dobar - dobra - dobro (good)
2. ljubazan - ljubazna - ljubazno (polite)
3. dosadan - dosadna - dosadno (boring)
4. sitan - sitna - sitno (tiny)
5. tanak - tanka - tanko (thin)
Learning Georgian, Mandarin Chinese, Russian and Papiamentu from scratch. Trying to brush up my Norwegian up to an advanced level.

User avatar
kibo
Language Forum Moderator
Posts: 6942
Joined: 2003-12-16, 18:35
Gender: male
Country: RS Serbia (Србија)

Postby kibo » 2004-09-26, 22:03

E}{pugnator wrote:
9. duci/duhovi


Only one mistake, Expug. :P

9. dusi/duhovi
Goals:
 (es) ➜ C1 (DELE)
 (de) ➜ B2 (Goethe-Zertifikat) / C1
 (sv) ➜ B1/B2

FNORD
Posts: 1354
Joined: 2004-08-28, 21:16
Gender: male
Location: São Paulo
Country: BR Brazil (Brasil)

Postby FNORD » 2004-09-28, 23:42

Here I am (very late :roll: :roll:)
Bugi wrote:Exercise 3A: Give the plural of these nouns

1. put - putevi
2. knjiga - knjige
3. plan - planovi
4. radnik - radnici
5. krst - krstovi
6. jutro - jutra
7. siromah - siromasi
8. vuk - vuci or vokovi
9. duh - dusi or duhovi
Last edited by FNORD on 2004-09-28, 23:50, edited 2 times in total.

FNORD
Posts: 1354
Joined: 2004-08-28, 21:16
Gender: male
Location: São Paulo
Country: BR Brazil (Brasil)

Postby FNORD » 2004-09-28, 23:45

Bugi wrote:Exercise 3B: Complete the following table

1. dobar - dobra - dobro
2. ljubazan - ljubazna - ljubazno
3. dosadan - dosadna - dosadno
4. sitan - sitna - sitno
5. tanak - tanka - tanko

User avatar
Strigo
Posts: 4724
Joined: 2002-12-27, 13:16
Real Name: Carlos Reyes Barría
Gender: male
Location: La Florida
Country: CL Chile (Chile)
Contact:

Postby Strigo » 2004-09-29, 0:36

I'm pretty busy this week so I'll get a bit late with the excersices.
:)
Aquí es donde traduzco diariamente música israelí del hebreo al español

[flag]cl[/flag] native; [flag]en[/flag] fluent; [flag]il[/flag] lower advanced ; [flag]pt-BR[/flag] read fluently, understand well, speak not so badly (specially after some Itaipava); recently focusing on [flag]sv[/flag][flag]ar[/flag] and I promised myself to finish my [flag]ru[/flag] New Penguin Russian Course: A Complete Course for Beginners in less than a month (12/oct/2013). Wants to wake up one day speaking [flag]ka[/flag][flag]lt[/flag] and any Turkic language.

User avatar
kibo
Language Forum Moderator
Posts: 6942
Joined: 2003-12-16, 18:35
Gender: male
Country: RS Serbia (Србија)

Postby kibo » 2004-09-29, 22:01

Very good, FNORD, no mistakes...

just remember people to post the solutions in red. ;)

Strigo wrote:I'm pretty busy this week so I'll get a bit late with the excersices.
:)


That's ok, just take your time. :)
Goals:
 (es) ➜ C1 (DELE)
 (de) ➜ B2 (Goethe-Zertifikat) / C1
 (sv) ➜ B1/B2

FNORD
Posts: 1354
Joined: 2004-08-28, 21:16
Gender: male
Location: São Paulo
Country: BR Brazil (Brasil)

Postby FNORD » 2004-10-13, 2:56

The course will not continue?


Return to “Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian (Bosanski/Hrvatski/Српски)”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests