I would like to add just some further remarks to what Mak has properly written.
In order to better understand the difference between two sentences like
1) ES MĪLU ZIEMU
2) MAN PATIK ZIEMA
we need to introduce the concept of THEMATIC ROLE.
Let's take for example the English sentences:
3) ROBERT LOVES WINTER
4) ROBERT LIKES WINTER
In these sentences ROBERT is the so-called EXPERIENCER, that is the person who feels love, delight, pleasure, etc. etc. for somenthing or somebody and WINTER is the THEME, that is the thing that is loved, etc. etc..
EXPERIENCER and THEME are two THEMATIC ROLES. THEMATIC ROLES are universal, that is, scholars think that there are the same thematic roles in every language, even though they don't agree about their number and (more important !!!) THEMATIC ROLES have to do with the SEMANTIC component of LANGUAGE.
In the English sentences 3) and 4) the EXPERIENCER is the SUBJECT and the THEME is the (Direct) OBJECT.
SUBJECT and (Direct) OBJECT are instead SYNTACTIC ROLES. Syntactic roles are also universal and have to do instead, as their name suggests, with the SYNTACTIC component of LANGUAGE.
So we can say that the English verbs TO LOVE and TO LIKE have the same thematic structure:
EXPERIENCER = SUBJECT
THEME = (Direct) OBJECT
Taking this into consideration we can write the English sentences in the following way:
3a) ROBERT (EXP // SUBJ) LOVES WINTER (THEME // OBJ)
4a) ROBERT (EXP // SUBJ) LIKES WINTER (THEME // OBJ)
Unfortunately, expecially for those who want to learn foreign languages, verbs do not always have the same thematic structure in all languages. In some languages the verb TO LIKE has a different thematic structure or in other words the thematic roles EXPERIENCER and THEME do not corresponde respectively to the syntactic roles SUBJECT and (Direct) OBJECT.
Let's take as examples two Latvian and Italian sentences:
5) ROBERTS (EXP // SUBJ) MĪL ZIEMU (THEME // OBJ)
6) ROBERTO ( EXP // SUBJ) AMA L'INVERNO (THEME // OBJ)
7) ROBERTAM (EXP // IND OBJ) PATIK ZIEMA (THEME // SUBJ)
8) A ROBERTO (EXP // IND OBJ) PIACE L'INVERNO (THEME // SUBJ)
Here, in the sentences 7) and 8), the verb TO LIKE (Latv. PATIKT, it. PIACERE) has a different thematic structure: the EXPIERENCER is the INDIRECT OBECT (which in Latvian is marked by the case DATIVE and in Italian by the preposition "A") and the THEME is the SUBJECT (which in Latvian is marked by the case NOMINATIVE and in Italian is "marked" by the fact that before the word INVERNO / WINTER there is NO prepostition).
So when we learn a verb we must know not only its meaning, but also its thematic structure!!!
In the Latvian sentences 1) and 2), that are repeated here as 9) and 10)
9) ES MĪLU ZIEMU
10) MAN PATIK ZIEMA
the EXPIERENCER is always the person who is speaking, but with MĪLĒT / TO LOVE he receives the syntactic role SUBJECT and consequentely the case NOMINATIVE (ES is the 1. person singular nominative in Latvian) and with PATIKT / TO LIKE he receives the syntactict role INDIRECT OBJECT and consequentely the case DATIVE (MAN is the 1. person singular dative in Latvian).
The THEME is always the "thing" that the person who is speaking loves or likes, but with MĪLĒT it receives the syntactic role (DIRECT) OBJECT and consequentely the case ACCUSATIVE (ZIEMU is the accusatice singular of the word ZIEMA) and with PATIKT / TO LIKE it receives the syntactic role SUBJECT and consequentely the case NOMINATIVE (ZIEMA is the nominative singular of the word ....ZIEMA!!!).
Are there in Croatian examples of sentences in which the EXPERIENCER is the SUBJECT and in which the EXPERIENCER is not the SUBJECT?
Nākamajam cilvēkam nepatik tas, ko parasti ciuppo2000 raksta