Jamtlandic (Jamsk'/Jamske)

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Jamtlandic (Jamsk'/Jamske)

Postby Priscian » 2006-04-08, 10:03

Jamtlandic Language

Jamtlandic is a regional language of Jämtland, Sweden, where it is spoken by half of the population and possibly understood by a majority of the residents. Ethnologue lists the number of speakers at 60,000, if true would make it relatively healthy, albeit lacking de jure status within the province (landskap), but it is de facto identity marker for a large percentage of the population.

The language, Jamtlandic (“Jamska”), is a Scandinavian language, which descended from Old Norse, like the mainland and insular Scandinavian languages. Within in a larger Scandinavian context it ought to be viewed as an independent language, not a dialect of Swedish or Norwegian, since these are political, social, and economic parameters. Due in large part to isolation and regional neglect, Jamtlandic continued its development in lieu of influences from both Dano-Norwegian and Swedish languages. It is true that language consciousness, as a modern term, is something relatively new to its speakers, but there is a long written tradition, which until recently have fallen under the umbra of “dialektlitteratur.” Like most spoken languages, which lack a normative orthography or a universally accepted morphology it is prone to have localized varieties, usually employing spelling conventions approximating Swedish.

The language has features that are closer to Old Norse than they are to either Swedish or Norwegian; however, its speakers have been under different political jurisdictions and influenced by official language policies. Jamtlandic is not a homogeneous language, but is spoken in quite varied, although mutually understandable, dialects (i.e. Jamtlandic dialects).

It is necessary to speak of it as being divided in South and North Jamtlandic, with a transition zone. It should be remembered that in many aspects the contemporary Jämtland has three dominant modes of communication, i.e. Jamtlandic, Swedish, and English (as means of access to the international community); but, again there are NO set delineations as to when or how any one of these languages are used.

Like other small peoples within Scandinavian speech communities, Jämtland is seeking some kind socio-political “home-rule” on par with the Faeroese or Ålanders. Whether this attainable or not, it does influence the perception among its speakers to the status of Jamtlandic. It is true that many younger people in Jämtland refer to their province as Republiken Jamtland, which has given vocalization to the identity within a larger Swedish milieu.

It is hoped that Hunef will post language information and possibly materials for individuals interested in learning this fascinating language.
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Postby Egein » 2006-04-08, 17:19

Waiting for hunef...
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Postby Hunef » 2006-04-08, 17:58

Wow, an excellent introduction, Priscian. I couldn't have written something like that. I would've focused too much on actual details concerning Jamtlandic, which people have complained about on other occasions when I have been writing about Jamtlandic.

It would be great fun to teach people my normalised version of Jamtlandic. Unfortunately, me and to some extent another jamtlander are the only ones using my orthography so far. (My normalisation not only focus on orthography, but also on grammar, vocabulary and morphology like what has been done for Icelandic and Faroese - and to some small extent even Dalecarlian.)
Last edited by Hunef on 2012-05-22, 21:35, edited 2 times in total.
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Postby Priscian » 2006-04-11, 13:55

Thank you for the dynamite information about Jamtlandic.

As for the Jamtlandic normalization based on an etymological premise, I am interested! I think that this is the correct approach for a language asserting its legitimacy. There are numerous examples of this methodology at work, e.g. Cornish (Jenner), Faroese (Hammershaimb), Hebrew (Ben Yehuda), etc. However, the obstacle lies in convincing enough speakers or users of the given language that this approach allows the language to show and maintain a continuance.

It is pii mai lao here in Laos, but I will write a lot more, i.e. inquiries about Jamtlandic phonology and morphology.

Frågor

Jag håller med på att de skandinaviska språken är mer logiskt delade i syd och nord, i stället för öst och väst. Men med en sådan katagori (dvs. syd – nord), ställer det inte också gotiskan inom den skandinaviska (nordgermaniska) språkfamiljen?

Ivar Aasen varför tog han inte in mer av formläran som då (och nu?) fanns bland de norska folkmålen, som han studerade? Skapade han en kompromiss mellan bokmål och dialekterna i västra Norge?

Färöiska är ett otroligt språk om inser hur få innevånare själva ögruppen har, men hur nyanserad och rik litteraturen är. Men även här tog inte Hammershaimb mer ifrån vissa ömål än andra?

Älvdalska är ett självständigt språk inom de skandinaviska språken som utvecklades i en annan rikning än svenska och norska för orsaker som kanske hadde med målets isolering och socio-ekonomi? Med sådan avancerad ställing har inte språket splittrad möjligheten av ett enigt dalska? Kommer Dalarna bli som det retoromaniska ”sprachgebiet” med fyra varianter?
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Postby Hunef » 2006-04-11, 20:08

Priscian wrote:Thank you for the dynamite information about Jamtlandic.

As for the Jamtlandic normalization based on an etymological premise, I am interested! I think that this is the correct approach for a language asserting its legitimacy. There are numerous examples of this methodology at work, e.g. Cornish (Jenner), Faroese (Hammershaimb), Hebrew (Ben Yehuda), etc. However, the obstacle lies in convincing enough speakers or users of the given language that this approach allows the language to show and maintain a continuance.


There's indeed a great problem to convince people to use my etymological approach. I had a meeting almost one year ago where I presented my approach to a small - but in the context important - audience including the guy hosting a radio show who was the organiser of the meeting. I am not sure exactly how much impact I had, but at least they are aware of my approach now.

NB: The people on the meeting were (using only initials): JP (creator of the new approach, i.e. me Hunef), BO (organiser of meeting and well-known for hosting a radio show in Jamtlandic), HB (linguist, retired teacher of German), BM (author writing in Jamtlandic) and TJ (owner of a book publishing company specialised to Jämtland related books, retired air force officer).

Priscian wrote:It is pii mai lao here in Laos, but I will write a lot more, i.e. inquiries about Jamtlandic phonology and morphology.

Frågor

Jag håller med på att de skandinaviska språken är mer logiskt delade i syd och nord, i stället för öst och väst. Men med en sådan katagori (dvs. syd – nord), ställer det inte också gotiskan inom den skandinaviska (nordgermaniska) språkfamiljen?


Följande uppdelning är den logiska:

N O R D G E R M A N S K A
*GOTISKA
*SKANDINAVISKA
**Öskandinaviska
***Sydöskandinaviska
****Färöiska
****Norn (utdött)
***Nordöskandinaviska
****Isländska
****Grönländska (utdött)
**Gutniska
***Storlandsgutniska
***Fårömål (utdött)
***Dagömål (utdött)
**Fastlandsskandinaviska
***Sydskandinaviska
****Jylländska
****Själländska
****Östdanska (skånska, bornholmska etc)
***Nordskandinaviska
****Götamål
****Sveamål (inkl. älvdalska)
****Östsvenska (i Finl. och Balt., ej Österb.)
****Västlandsmål (i Norge, besl. m. öskand.)
****Östlandsmål (i Norge)
****Tröndermål (inkl. jämtska)
****Nordlandsmål (i Norge, besl. m. västlandsm.)
****Midlandsmål (i Norge)
****Norrländska (eg. mix sveam. & trönderm.)

Notera att jag ej tar med de fastlandsskandinaviska riksspråken eftersom de är sentida/artificiella konstruktioner. Idag har de förstås dock relevans i allra högsta grad, men t.ex. rikssvenska och bokmål är ju blandningar av olika element i listan ovan. (Rikssvenska är en blandning mellan i första hand sveamål och götamål, och bokmål är väl en blandning mellan i första hand östlandsnorska och själländska.)

Priscian wrote:Ivar Aasen varför tog han inte in mer av formläran som då (och nu?) fanns bland de norska folkmålen, som han studerade? Skapade han en kompromiss mellan bokmål och dialekterna i västra Norge?


Faktum är att Ivar Aasen till en början använde t.ex. dativ och flerkasusböjning. (T.ex. "Me bjoda gjentom vatn" ='Vi bjuder flickorna vatten', vilket han senare ändrade till "Me byd gjentone vatn". I min normalisering av jämtska, "Með bjœð' sturkjum vatn" [mæ bjʏːʏ stʰɞʃːʊm vɑtn̩].)

Priscian wrote:Färöiska är ett otroligt språk om inser hur få innevånare själva ögruppen har, men hur nyanserad och rik litteraturen är. Men även här tog inte Hammershaimb mer ifrån vissa ömål än andra?


I vissa dialekter har man bevarat vissa ålderdomligheter som inte Hammershaimb tog med, och i vissa dialekter har man kraftigt förenklat formsystemet (troligen beroende på fonologisk utveckling som lett till sammanfall) vilket inte Hammershaimb tagit hänsyn till. Fast jag vet inte om han gynnade några specifika dialekter.

Priscian wrote:Älvdalska är ett självständigt språk inom de skandinaviska språken som utvecklades i en annan rikning än svenska och norska för orsaker som kanske hadde med målets isolering och socio-ekonomi? Med sådan avancerad ställing har inte språket splittrad möjligheten av ett enigt dalska? Kommer Dalarna bli som det retoromaniska ”sprachgebiet” med fyra varianter?


Dalarna är det mest dialektsplittrade området i det nordgermanska spårkområdet. Hela Dalarna kan inte enas under ett "dalskt" skriftspråk, men man kan helt säkert förena alla s.k. äkta dalmål som talas utmed Österdalälven. (Här har jag gjort ett försök: http://home.unilang.org/wiki3/index.php/Dalecarlian )
But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown.
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Postby Priscian » 2006-04-12, 5:10

Normalizing the orthography and grammar based on etymological grounds for Jamtlandic is sound for many reasons. One of the primary ones is that it removes the shadow of diglossia, which dialect writing (dialektlitteratur) so often does by approximating the language or dialect of the dominant language, in this case Swedish or Norwegian.

One persistent myth about Jamtlandic is that it is either dialect of Swedish or Norwegian depending on one’s political orientation. Jamtlandic should be seen as a language existing parallel with Swedish and Norwegian, but currently existing within larger Swedish-speaking society. However, this is for the Jamtlandic speakers and writers to formulate; it would be highly inappropriate for outsiders (especially for me) to pontificate for them how to see and use their language.

An exemplar of etymological approach that is interesting to study in lieu with Jamtlandic is Hugh MacDiarmid’s Scots (“Synthetic Scots”), where he drew (un-)wisely from all periods of Scots, but especially Dunbar. Was (is) Scots a success? This is relative to its users; but, since there is a substantial amount of writing (belles letters) in Scots, it has to be viewed as a spectacular success. Viewing Jamtlandic, given the small number, looking at their creative efforts, one has to come to the conclusion they are achieving their objective, i.e. Jamtlandic as a status language. There are currently attempts to translate the Bible into Jamtlandic. This effort alone for many languages creates in the users (writers and readers) a certain legitimization of the language. The translation of the Bible probably saved several smaller European languages from passing into extinction (cf. Scottish Gaelic and Welsh). Sadly the full translation of the Bible, in this case New Testament, in Scots is surprisingly late (Lorimar). Dalecarlian also has this aim, i.e. rendering the Bible in the language.

It is interesting to note that only two of the regional languages within Sweden, Jamtlandic and Älv-Dalecarlian, are setting language paradigms for the development as whole languages, e.g. by establishing or attempting normalization their orthographies and setting ‘standard’ morphologies. Gutnish (Gotland) and Scanian have not reached or attempted to do the same as Dalska or Jamska have. Apparently there are similar developments in Norway among some the regional languages, but I do not at what level they are. It is safe to say that Ivar Aasen had this in mind when he envisioned a language separate from the written Danish of his day and the school grammar.

There are certain advantages that the Jamtlandic language speaker and writer have, i.e. the language is still spoken and essentially intact. The speech community is in a part of the country that either due to economics and / or neglect has been left outside of larger society, which has worked in the language’s advantage.

Hunef’s efforts to set parameters of the language by viewing Jamska not as a colorful local variety of Swedish, but a full-fledged language, is accurate. His attempts to use historical and etymological materials to structure a standard are correct (personal opinion). This effort to set orthography on etymological basis and diachronic morphology is Herculean, but possible.

NOTE:

It is fascinating to draw a comparison here to the language development in Laos. The task of standardizing Lao (Laotian) in context of Thai was not an easy endeavour; but, the Lao linguists indefatigable efforts have de jure established the language. In Thailand, Lao is designated as North-eastern Thai, a mere local dialect. Due to the proximity to Thailand, the Lao are inundated by Thai television and radio programs, yet the have consciously worked out a Lao language identity. Yes, this was facilitated by the fact that Laos is a political entity, fully independent of Thailand. Likewise the Hmong in Laos have managed to establish a relatively ‘standard’ form and are in the process of creating a Hmong literature. This shows that smaller nations can if the language users choose and work to establish their languages, regardless of the cultural or economic position.

It would be interesting what other speakers of languages in similar situations feel, cf. Low German Plattdüüsch .
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Postby Priscian » 2006-04-12, 5:20

I like Hunef’s post on the delineation of Scandinavian languages and his answers on the particulars pertaining to Dalska, Faeroese, and Nynorsk.

Det skulle vara jätte bra om jag (vi) kunde granska text i den normaliserade ortografin och få se jamska formläran. Varje gång du skriver, skriv en del på jamska för oss nybörjare.
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Postby Hunef » 2006-04-12, 17:36

Priscian wrote:Normalizing the orthography and grammar based on etymological grounds for Jamtlandic is sound for many reasons. One of the primary ones is that it removes the shadow of diglossia, which dialect writing (dialektlitteratur) so often does by approximating the language or dialect of the dominant language, in this case Swedish or Norwegian.


One of the main problems with writing in dialect is the diglossia problem, i.e., that a non-dominant language unconditionally borrows from a closely related dominant language. (The most serious situation may be the replacing of a native word with a cognate word from the dominant language. In Jamtlandic one e.g. had the word brouð [brɞɵːʋ] 'bread', Old Norse brauð, which later was replaced by Danish brød, though with the pronunciation [brøː].) In the Nordic countries, Swedish and Danish have acted like dominant languages and all other mainly as non-dominant ones. For Jamtlandic, diglossia has always existed, but an acceleration started in late 19th century when the industrialisation arrived.

Priscian wrote:One persistent myth about Jamtlandic is that it is either dialect of Swedish or Norwegian depending on one’s political orientation. Jamtlandic should be seen as a language existing parallel with Swedish and Norwegian, but currently existing within larger Swedish-speaking society. However, this is for the Jamtlandic speakers and writers to formulate; it would be highly inappropriate for outsiders (especially for me) to pontificate for them how to see and use their language.


My view is that Jamtlandic is a well-defined group of dialects of North Germanic closely related to the norwegian dialects and to the swedish sveamål, but independent. (Just as e.g. sveamål dialects are independent from e.g. gutnish.)

Priscian wrote:An exemplar of etymological approach that is interesting to study in lieu with Jamtlandic is Hugh MacDiarmid’s Scots (“Synthetic Scots”), where he drew (un-)wisely from all periods of Scots, but especially Dunbar. Was (is) Scots a success? This is relative to its users; but, since there is a substantial amount of writing (belles letters) in Scots, it has to be viewed as a spectacular success. Viewing Jamtlandic, given the small number, looking at their creative efforts, one has to come to the conclusion they are achieving their objective, i.e. Jamtlandic as a status language. There are currently attempts to translate the Bible into Jamtlandic. This effort alone for many languages creates in the users (writers and readers) a certain legitimization of the language. The translation of the Bible probably saved several smaller European languages from passing into extinction (cf. Scottish Gaelic and Welsh). Sadly the full translation of the Bible, in this case New Testament, in Scots is surprisingly late (Lorimar). Dalecarlian also has this aim, i.e. rendering the Bible in the language.


It is a very good initiative to translate the Bible into Jamtlandic, though I would like to see my own orthography and etymological and puristic considerations. Personally, I would like to translate some Icelandic sagas, especially Jämtland related ones. The parts about the jamtlandic national viking age hero Aðnljœt Gellin [ˈɑːnˌjʏːt ˈjɛlːˌan], Old Norse Arnljótr Gellini, would be my main initial aim.

Priscian wrote:It is interesting to note that only two of the regional languages within Sweden, Jamtlandic and Älv-Dalecarlian, are setting language paradigms for the development as whole languages, e.g. by establishing or attempting normalization their orthographies and setting ‘standard’ morphologies. Gutnish (Gotland) and Scanian have not reached or attempted to do the same as Dalska or Jamska have. Apparently there are similar developments in Norway among some the regional languages, but I do not at what level they are. It is safe to say that Ivar Aasen had this in mind when he envisioned a language separate from the written Danish of his day and the school grammar.


In fact, there was a group - called Propago - in Gotland which had developed a gutnish written normal based on Old Gutnish and ideas similar to mine. They seem to have stopped their progress though, but her you may see the most extensive work written in their normal: http://www.nynorsk.no/minoritet/gutamaal.html . (Though I remember the orthography they presented as being somewhat different.)
There is a clear reason why regional varieties of scandinavian spoken in Norway aren't having serious written normals. Nynorsk seems to have taken this quest. And unlike Sweden, Norway is homogeneous, i.e., there is only one scandinavian ethnicity in Norway. In Sweden you have danes, norwegians, guts etc whose lands lie in the wrong national states.

Priscian wrote:There are certain advantages that the Jamtlandic language speaker and writer have, i.e. the language is still spoken and essentially intact. The speech community is in a part of the country that either due to economics and / or neglect has been left outside of larger society, which has worked in the language’s advantage.


You're corect here. It's the areas which the central government has never really cared about which have preserved the old dialects.

Priscian wrote:Hunef’s efforts to set parameters of the language by viewing Jamska not as a colorful local variety of Swedish, but a full-fledged language, is accurate. His attempts to use historical and etymological materials to structure a standard are correct (personal opinion). This effort to set orthography on etymological basis and diachronic morphology is Herculean, but possible.


If I succeed to make other jamtlanders to adopt my written normal, I think that there's a good chance.
But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown.
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Postby Hunef » 2006-04-12, 17:56

Priscian wrote:I like Hunef’s post on the delineation of Scandinavian languages and his answers on the particulars pertaining to Dalska, Faeroese, and Nynorsk.

Det skulle vara jätte bra om jag (vi) kunde granska text i den normaliserade ortografin och få se jamska formläran. Varje gång du skriver, skriv en del på jamska för oss nybörjare.


Så, varför inte lista de jämtska starka verben (i ortografisk och grammatisk normering) som en början? (Jag tar en typ i taget, totalt sju stycken.)

Typ 1: Rotvokalen ändras enligt í--ei-u--i (inf/pres--imp sg-imp pl--sup).

Exempel: til bít' [tʰɪ biːit] 'to bite'.

Infinitiv:
bít' [biːit]
(Jeg skal bít' beinið 'I will bite the bone')

Presens indikativ:
sing: bít [biːt]
plur: bít' [biːit]
(Með bít' kjotið 'We bite the meat')

Presens konjunktiv:
sing: bít' [biːit]
plur: bít' [biːit]
(Húnninn bít' deg! 'May the dog bite you!')

Imperfekt indikativ:
sing: beit [beɪːt]
plur: butu [bɵtʰɵ]
(Deð butu húskugt mykið tennrum 'You bite your teeth very much')

Imperfekt konjunktiv:
sing: biti [bɪtʰɪ]
plur: butu [bɵtʰɵ]
(Biti hú streikinn... 'If she would bite the boy...')

Supinum:
bitið [bɪtʰɪ]
(Goupų hev bitið elginn 'The lynx has bitten the elk/moose')

Imperativ: Bít! [biːt] (sg. 2:a), Bítum! [biːtʊm] (pl. 1:a), Bítin! [biːtan] (pl. 2:a).
(Bítin, fulk! 'Bite, people!')
But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown.
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Postby Priscian » 2006-04-13, 13:32

Hunef wrote:Så, varför inte lista de jämtska starka verben (i ortografisk och grammatisk normering) som en början? (Jag tar en typ i taget, totalt sju stycken.)

Typ 1: Rotvokalen ändras enligt í--ei-u--i (inf/pres--imp sg-imp pl--sup).

Exempel: til bít' [tʰɪ biːit] 'to bite'.

Infinitiv:
bít' [biːit]
(Jeg skal bít' beinið 'I will bite the bone')

Presens indikativ:
sing: bít [biːt]
plur: bít' [biːit]
(Með bít' kjotið 'We bite the meat')

Presens konjunktiv:
sing: bít' [biːit]
plur: bít' [biːit]
(Húnninn bít' deg! 'May the dog bite you!')

Imperfekt indikativ:
sing: beit [beɪːt]
plur: butu [bɵtʰɵ]
(Deð butu húskugt mykið tennrum 'You bite your teeth very much')

Imperfekt konjunktiv:
sing: biti [bɪtʰɪ]
plur: butu [bɵtʰɵ]
(Biti hú streikinn... 'If she would bite the boy...')

Supinum:
bitið [bɪtʰɪ]
(Goupų hev bitið elginn 'The lynx has bitten the elk/moose')

Imperativ: Bít! [biːt] (sg. 2:a), Bítum! [biːtʊm] (pl. 1:a), Bítin! [biːtan] (pl. 2:a).
(Bítin, fulk! 'Bite, people!')


This is VERY good! Please post more of these linguistic 'delicacies'. I will start compiling them in order to learn the morphology and the orthographic conventions.

Gott nytt år (pii mai lao) till dig! Skriv mer på det härliga jamska språket!
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Postby Priscian » 2006-04-14, 2:20

1st conjungation strong verb of Jamtlandic compares very closely to Old Norse, e.g.

Infinitive

bit' (bita)

Present (3rd person singular)

bít (bítr)

Imperfect (3rd person singular)

beit (beit)

Imperfect (3rd person plural)

butu (bitu)
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Postby Mulder-21 » 2006-04-15, 3:00

Here's Faroese, for comparison:

at bíta - bítur - beit - bitu - (hevur bitið)
Gløgt er gestsins eyga. (Føroyskt orðafelli)
Wise is the stranger's eye. (Faroese saying)
L'occhio dell'ospite è acuto. (Proverbio faroico)
Hosťovo oko je múdre. (Faerské uslovie)

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Postby Priscian » 2006-04-15, 3:15

Mulder321 wrote:

at bíta - bítur - beit - bitu - (hevur bitið)


Nice!
Arma virumque cano



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Hunef
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Postby Hunef » 2006-04-15, 15:51

Priscian wrote:1st conjungation strong verb of Jamtlandic compares very closely to Old Norse, e.g.

Infinitive

bit' (bita)

Present (3rd person singular)

bít (bítr)

Imperfect (3rd person singular)

beit (beit)

Imperfect (3rd person plural)

butu (bitu)


Actually, it's first person singular which Jamtlandic has inherited, not third person singular. (Old Norse had e.g. Ek bít 'I bite'.)
But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown.
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Postby Hunef » 2006-04-15, 15:52

Priscian wrote:Mulder321 wrote:

at bíta - bítur - beit - bitu - (hevur bitið)


Nice!


Remember though that Faroese í and ei are pronunced something like [ʊɪː] and [ɔɪː], where Old Norse and Jamtlandic have the phonetical [iː] and [eiː]/[eɪː].
But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown.
Carl Sagan

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Postby Hunef » 2006-04-15, 16:13

Next type:

Type 2: Characterized by the root vowel change: (j)œ/(j)ú/ý--ou-u--y (inf/pres--imp sg-imp pl--sup).

Example: til bjœð' [tʰɪ bjʏːʏ] 'to offer'.

Infinitive:
bjœð' [bjʏːʏ]
(Jeg skal bjœð' dekk matinn 'I will offer you food')

Presens indicative:
sing: bjœð [bjʏː]
plur: bjœð' [bjʏːʏ]
(Hann bjœð sturkjum kjotið 'He offers meat to the girls')

Presens conjunctive:
sing: bjœð' [bjʏːʏ]
plur: bjœð' [bjʏːʏ]
(Guð bjœð' deg himilríkið! 'May God offer you the kingdom of heaven!')

Imperfect indicative:
sing: bouð [bɞɵːɣ] (note the [-ɣ]!)
plur: budu [bɵðɵ]
(Með budu mekk sjelfum vatnið 'We offered ourselves water')

Imperfect conjunctive:
sing: bydi [bʏðɪ]
plur: budu [bɵðɵ]
(Bydi hú streikį... 'If she would offer the boy...')

Supine:
bydið [bʏðɪ]
(Kallinn hef bydið kerringinn kafið 'The old man has offered the old woman coffee')

Imperative: Bjœð! [bjʏː] (sg. 2:a), Bjœðum! [bjʏːʊm] (pl. 1:a), Bjœðin! [bjʏːan] (pl. 2:a).
(Bjœðum fuglum mark'! 'Let us offer worms to the birds!')
But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown.
Carl Sagan

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Postby Hunef » 2006-04-15, 16:29

Next type:

Type 3: Characterized by the root vowel change: e/i/je--a-u--y (inf/pres--imp sg-imp pl--sup).

Example: til finn' [tʰɪ fɪɪnː] 'to find'.

Infinitive:
finn' [fɪɪnː]
(Systkinnið mit skal finn' bókį 'My sibbling will find the book')

Presens indicative:
sing: finn [fɪnː]
plur: finn' [fɪɪnː]
(Jeg finn itt' húsið 'I don't/can't find the house')

Presens conjunctive:
sing: finn' [fɪɪnː]
plur: finn' [fɪɪnː]
(Dú finn' ringinn! 'May you find the ring!')

Imperfect indicative:
sing: fann [fanː]
plur: funn' [fɞɞnː]
(Dú fann ringinn 'You found the ring')

Imperfect conjunctive:
sing: funn' [fɞɞnː]
plur: funn' [fɞɞnː]
(Funn' hú streikinn... 'If she would find the boy...')

Supine:
fynnið [bʏðɪ]
(Í dag hafa með fynnið burttyllaðpøykinn 'Today we found the lost boy')

Imperative: Finn! [fɪnː] (sg. 2:a), Finnum! [fɪnːʊm] (pl. 1:a), Finnin! [fɪnːan] (pl. 2:a).
(Finn órðið núnan! 'Find the word right now!')
But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown.
Carl Sagan

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Postby Mulder-21 » 2006-04-16, 3:52

Faroese, again for comparison:

At bjóða:

at bjóða - býður - beyð - buðu - hevur boðið

At finna:

at finna - finnur - fann - funnu - hevur funnið

JP :)

PS. 'At bjóða' can also be conjugated weakly:

at bjóða - bjóðar - bjóðaði - bjóðaðu - hevur bjóðað,

however, the strong conjugation is the preferred one.
Gløgt er gestsins eyga. (Føroyskt orðafelli)
Wise is the stranger's eye. (Faroese saying)
L'occhio dell'ospite è acuto. (Proverbio faroico)
Hosťovo oko je múdre. (Faerské uslovie)

Fluent: Faroese, Danish, English, German
Almost fluent: Norwegian, Swedish
Basic: Slovak (studying), Spanish
Have studied: Hebrew, Russian
Interests: Ukrainian, Romanian, Italian, Albanian, Armenian, Ossetic, Hungarian, Estonian, Baltic languages

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Postby Priscian » 2006-04-16, 10:43

Hunef,

these posts are outstanding! I will compile them into a Jamtlandic 'grammar' (i.e. Jens Persson's Jamska). I am interested in your magnum opus when it gets published (Neo-Jamtlandic).

Re: Wikipedia entry (Jamtlandic)

Again, I like this article! However, for some reason, I am unable to get the phonetic symbols to show. How do I do that?
Arma virumque cano



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Postby Hunef » 2006-04-16, 15:37

Priscian wrote:Hunef,

these posts are outstanding! I will compile them into a Jamtlandic 'grammar' (i.e. Hunef's Jamska). I am interested in your magnum opus when it gets published (Neo-Jamtlandic).


If it'll get puiblished. It seems extremly optimistic to publish it this summer. It's more likely that I'll put up a website where I make a thorough exposure of my norm.

Priscian wrote:Re: Wikipedia entry (Jamtlandic)

Again, I like this article! However, for some reason, I am unable to get the phonetic symbols to show. How do I do that?


Try downloading a new browser. I am using Mozilla Firefox 1.0.7 and the phonetical symbols appear quite nicely.
Last edited by Hunef on 2012-05-22, 22:04, edited 1 time in total.
But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown.
Carl Sagan


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