księżyc - Readings in Biblical Hebrew

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księżyc - Readings in Biblical Hebrew

Postby księżycowy » 2014-07-18, 22:06

So, I figured, due to the nature of this thread being about readings from the Bible i would put it in the ACEL forum. I almost posted it in the Hebrew forum, but I figure this forum needs some love too. :wink: Personally, I'll save the Hebrew forum for Modern Hebrew for the most part.


In order to keep my Biblical Hebrew up to snuff, and hopefully improve it along the way, I'm going to start posting sections of Biblical text that I will gloss, parse key words, and translate. All names (place and person) will conform to the NSRV form. I'd like to go through a whole book of the Bible before moving on to other readings, but we will see how interest guides us. I'll take a few verses at a time for now (my original plan was to do a whole chapter at a time, but that's a little too much to bite off right now).

I've been (slowly) working through 1 Samuel, so why not keep that going.

1 Sam 1:1-5:
וַיְהִי אִישׁ אֶחָר מִן־הָרָמָתַיִמ צוֹפִימ מֵהַ֣ר אֶפְרָיִם וּשְׁמוֹ אֶלְקָנָה בֶּן־יְרֹחָם בֶּן־אְֶלִיהוּא בֶּן־תֹּחוּ בֶן־צוּף אֶפְרָתִי׃ וְלוֹ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֵׁם אַחַת חַנָּה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית פְּנִנָּה וַיְהִי לִפְנִנָּה יְלָדִים וּלְחַנָּה אֵין יְלָדִים׃ וְעָלָה הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מֵעִירוֹ מִיָּמִים יָמִימָה לְהִשְׁתַּחְַוֹת וְלִזְבֹּחַ לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּשִׁלֹה וְשָׁם שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־עֵלִי חָפְנִי וּפִ֣נְחָס כֹּהְַנִים לַיהוָה׃ וַיְהִ֣י הַיּוֹם וַיִּזְבַּח אֶלְקָנָה וְנָתַן לִפְנִנָּ֣ה אִשְׁתּוֹ וּלְכָל־בָּנֶיהָ וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ מָנוֹת׃ וּלְחַנָּה יִתֵּן מָנָה אַחַת אַפָּיִם כִּי אֶת־חַנָּה אָהֵב וַיהוה סָגַר רַחְמָהּ׃


Verse 1:
וַיְהִי אִישׁ אֶחָר מִן־הָרָמָתַיִמ צוֹפִימ מֵהַ֣ר אֶפְרָיִם וּשְׁמוֹ אֶלְקָנָה בֶּן־יְרֹחָם בֶּן־אְֶלִיהוּא בֶּן־תֹּחוּ בֶן־צוּף אֶפְרָתִי׃


Gloss:
וַיְהִיאִישׁ אֶחָר מִן־הָרָמָתַיִמ צוֹפִימ מֵהַ֣ר אֶפְרָיִם וּשְׁמוֹ
and_it was somanonefrom_Ramathaim Zophimfrom_mountainEphraimand_name_his
אֶלְקָנָהבֶּן־יְרֹחָםבֶּן־אְֶלִיהוּא בֶּן־תֹּחוּבֶן־צוּףאֶפְרָתִי
Elkanahson_Jerohamson_Elihuson_Tohuson_ZuphEphraimite


Parsing of Key Words:
וַיְהִי - vav conversive on a 3rd masc. sing. imperfect, root: היה; "and it was so/thus"
אֶחָר - masc. absolute cardinal number; "one"
מֵהַ֣ר - preposition (מִן) attached to a construct masc. sing. noun; "from [a] mountain"
וּשְׁמוֹ - conjunctive ("and") attached to a const. masc. sing. noun with masc. sing. suffix; "and his name"

Translation:
And there was a [lit: one] man from Ramathaim Zophim* from [a] mountain [of] Ephraim, and his name [was] Elkanah, son of Jeroham, son of Elihu, son of Tohu, son of Zuph, [an] Ephraimite.

*Some translations: from Ramathaim, a Zuphite (I favor "Ramathaim Zophim" as a complete place name, and see no reason for this split at the moment)

Grammar to Learn/Refresh:
-Weak verbs, weak verbs, weak verbs! :lol:
-Refresh alternative forms of conjunctive vav and preposition מִן.
-Personal pronoun suffixes.

Vocabulary to Learn/Refresh:
הַ֣ר

Notes:
This verse was pretty easy. Mostly construct chains connected with maqqefs (almost all of these being a list of ancestors). The trickiest thing was translating the names into something other then the transcription I learned. :lol:
Last edited by księżycowy on 2014-07-23, 21:43, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: księżyc - Readings in Biblical Hebrew

Postby księżycowy » 2014-07-23, 21:42

Verse 2:
וְלוֹ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֵׁם אַחַת חַנָּה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית פְּנִנָּה וַיְהִי לִפְנִנָּה יְלָדִים וּלְחַנָּה אֵין יְלָדִים׃


Gloss:
יְלָדִיםאֵיןוּלְחַנָּהיְלָדִיםלִפְנִנָּהוַיְהִי
childrenabsenceand_to_Hannahchildrento_Peninnahand_it was so
פְּנִנָּההַשֵּׁנִיתוְשֵׁםחַנָּהאַחַת
Peninnahthe_secondand_nameHannahone
שֵׁםנָשִׁיםשְׁתֵּיוְלוֹ
namewomentwoand_to_him


Parsing of Key Words:

Translation:
And he had two wives, one named Hannah and the second named Peninnah, and it happened that P. had children, but Hannah had no children.

Grammar to Learn/Refresh:
-Numbers (I forgot that last time).

Notes:
-I don't nessicarily plan to go line by line like I have the last two posts. it just will depend on how much I can get done in a few days, as I want to keep posting every few days here. I may try doing a few verses at once (and maybe eventually do more then 5 verses at a time. Either way, every so often I plan to concolidate what I've done translation, vocabulary, and grammar wise into one bigger post. Perhaps every chapter, if it's not too much. We'll see how it goes.

-Nothing really to report about this particular verse, aside from the fact that I was a bit free with my translation, as anyone can tell. Though I did try to keep it pretty close to the Hebrew (including trying to keep it in one sentence; most translations make this a few sentences).

-Also note the order of the glossing has switched to a more Hebrew orientation. (Which is what I intended from the start)

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Re: księżyc - Readings in Biblical Hebrew

Postby księżycowy » 2014-08-05, 19:09

I forgot the mention in my intro to this thread:
This is as much a way to practice as it is the hope people will help/correct me where appropriate.

More coming up in a few days.

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Re: księżyc - Readings in Biblical Hebrew

Postby księżycowy » 2017-03-19, 22:30

After a long absence, I'm back to bring more readings, and more glosses! As I'm currently refreshing my Hebrew any help or assistance in translation or or grammar is more than welcome!

First, I'll work through Gen 22:1-14, starting with verses 1-3. My plan is to post the rest throughout the week, tackling 2-3 verses at a time. Without further ado:

Gen 22:1-3
וַיְהִי אַַחַר הַדְּבָרִִ֣ם הַאֵלֶּה וְהָ֣אֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיּאֹמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיּאֹמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ וַאֹמֶר קַח־נָא אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ אֲשֶׁר־אָהַבְתָּ אֶת־יִצְחָק וְלֶךְ־לְךָ אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּ֑ה וְהַעֲלֵהוּ שָׁם לְעֹלָה עַל אַחַ֣ד הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ׃ וַיַּשְׁכֵּם אַבְרָהָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיַּחֲבֹשׁ אֶת־חֲמֹרוֺ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־שְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו אִתּוֺ וְאֵת יִצְחָ֣ק בְּנ֑וֺ וַיְבַקַּע עֲצֵ֣י עֹלָה וַיָּ֣קָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־הַמָּקוֺם אֲשֶׁר־אָמַר־לוֺ הָאֱלֹהִים׃

Gloss

נִסָּהוְהָ֣אֱלֹהִיםהַאֵלֶּההַדְּבָרִִ֣םאַַחַרוַיְהִי
he_tried/testedand-the-Elohimthe-these_c_plthe-thingsafterand_it_happened
הִנֵּנִיוַיּאֹמֶראַבְרָהָםאֵלָיווַיּאֹמֶראֶת־אַבְרָהָ֑ם
behold-meand-he-saidAbrahamto-himand-he-saidDDO_marker-Abraham
אֶת־יִצְחָקאֲשֶׁר־אָהַבְתָּאֶת־יְחִידְךָאֶת־בִּנְךָקַח־נָאוַאֹמֶר
DDO-Isaacwhich-love-you_masc_sgDDO-only_one-your_masc_sgDDO-son-your_masc_sggo!-prayand-he-said
לְעֹלָהשָׁםוְהַעֲלֵהוּהַמֹּרִיָּ֑האֶל־אֶרֶץוְלֶךְ־לְךָ
to-burnt_offeringthereand-bring_up-himthe-Moriahtoward-landgo-to-you_masc_sg
אֵלֶיךָאֹמַראֲשֶׁרהֶהָרִיםאַחַ֣דעַל
to-you_masc_sgwhich_saythatthe-mountainsanotheron/upon
וַיִּקַּחאֶת־חֲמֹרוֺוַיַּחֲבֹשׁבַּבֹּקֶראַבְרָהָםוַיַּשְׁכֵּם
ַand-he-tookDDO-the-ass-hisand-he-boundin_the-morningAbrahamand-he-started_early
בְּנ֑וֺיִצְחָ֣קוְאֵתאִתּוֺנְעָרָיואֶת־שְׁנֵי
son-hisIsaacand-DDOwith-himservants-hisDDO-two
אֶל־הַמָּקוֺםוַיֵּלֶךְוַיָּ֣קָםעֹלָהעֲצֵ֣יוַיְבַקַּע
toward-the-placeand-he-walkedand-he-cleaved/broke_[through]burnt offeringtrees_constructand-he-bound
הָאֱלֹהִיםאֲשֶׁר־אָמַר־לוֺ
the-Elohimthat-spoke-to-him


Translation

And it happened after these things [that] the Lord tested Abraham and said, "Abraham." And he [Abraham] said, "Here I am." And he said [the Lord], "Pray, go with your only son, who you love, Isaac and take [him/yourselves] to the land of Moriah and offer him up as a burnt offering upon one of the other mountains that speak to you!" And Abraham arose early in the morning and saddled his ass [lit. bound his ass], and he took and bound [some] wood [which] he cleaved [for the] burnt offering. He went toward the place which the Lord spoke to him.

Parsing of Key Words
אֶת־שְׁנֵי - could either be the Definite Direct Object (DDO) marker with the number or the preposition 'with'
וְלֶךְ־לְךָ - qal imperative of הלך plus the preposition ל plus the 2nd masc sg ending ךָ
קַח־נָא - qal m. sg. imperative of לקח plus נָא
וַיְבַקַּע - piel prefix 3rd masc sg of בקע

Notes
There are a lot of qal prefix forms with the vav conversive in this section, which is kind of nice. The hard part (and thank God for the glosses to these readings in Kittel, et al.!) where those verb forms that lost letters.

The use of the verb "to say" אמר is interesting. The NRSV translates it a bit differently, and a little more artistically. Then again, I was going to as close to a literal translation as I could, so that I could understand the actual Hebrew.

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Re: księżyc - Readings in Biblical Hebrew

Postby księżycowy » 2017-04-01, 18:38

Ok, I'm a little behind in the reading assignments, but that's ok.

Here's the rest of Gen 22:1-14. It'll be a bit long, so I'm not going to gloss it the way I had been doing it. I liked the other way because you could easily see what word I glossed as what, but that is time consuming enough on two or three verses, let alone ten. Therefore, I'll only provide the English in the glossing this time.

The verse numbers were a relatively late development of this post, and I couldn't figure out how to put '4' before the first verse of the Hebrew without starting it all over. So, I just kind of left it unnumbered. Anyone reading this should be able to get the idea. :lol:

I noticed about three spelling errors in the Hebrew as I was working through the translation (I like to type up and print off these texts so I can mark them up, and get some practice typing Hebrew). If there are anymore I missed, please let me know.

Gen 22:4-14
בַּיּ֣וֺם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַיִּשָֺּא אַבְרָהָם אֶת־עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא אֶת־הַמָּקוֺם מֵרָחֺק׃ 5 וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֶל־נָעָרָיו שְׁבוּ־לָכֶם פֹּה עִם־הַחֲמוֺר וַאֲנִ֣י וְהַנַּעַר נֵלְכָה עַד־כֹּ֑ה וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 6 וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָהָמ אֶת־עֲצֵ֣י הָעֹלָה וַיָּשֶֹם עַל־יִצְחָ֣ק בְּנוֺ וַיִּקַּ֣ח בְּיָדוֺ אֶת־הָאֵשׁ וְאֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶ֑לֶת וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו׃ 7 וַיֹּאמֶר יִצְחָק אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אָבִיו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אָבִי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּ֣נִּי בְנִ֑י וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה הָאֵשׁ וְהָ֣עֵצִים וְאַיֵּה הַשֶֹּה לְעֹלָה׃ 8 וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהִים יִרְאֶה־לּוֺ הַשֶֹּה לְעֹלָה בְּנִ֑י וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו׃ 9 וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֺם אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַר־ל֣וֺ הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּבֶן שָׁם אַבְרָהָם אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיַּעֲרֹךְ אֶת־הָעֵצִ֑ים וַיַּעֲקֹד אֶת־יִצְחָ֣ק בְּנוֺ וַיָּשֶֹם אֹתוֺ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִמַּעַל לָעֵצִים׃ 10 וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֺ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶ֑לֶת לִשְׁחֹט אֶת־בְּנוֺ׃ 11 וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ 12 וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל־הַנַּעַר וְאַל־תַּעַשֹ לוֺ מְא֑וּמָּה כִּ֣י עַתָּ֣ה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה וְלֹא חָשַֹכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ מִמֶּנִּי׃ 13 וַיִּשָֹּא אַבְרָהָם אֶת־עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה־אַיִל אַחַר נֶאֱחַז בַּסְּבַךְ בְּקַרְנָ֑יו וַיֵּלֶךְ אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־הָאַיִל וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ לְעֹלָה תַּחַת בְּנוֺ׃ 14 וַיִּקְרָם אַבְרָהָם שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֺם הַהוּא יְהוָ֣ה יִרְאֶ֑ה אֲשֶׁר יֵאָמֵ֣ר הַיּוֺם בְּהַר יְהוָה יֵרָאֶה׃

Gloss
4 on_the-day the-third he-lifed Abraham DDO-eyes-his and-he-saw DDO-the-place from-distance 5 and-he-said Abraham to-servant(s)-his keep-to-you_m_pl here with-the-ass and-I and-the-boy we_will_go until-here and-we_will_worship and-we/I_will_return to-you_m_pl. 6 and-he-took Abraham DDO-wood the-burnt_offering and-he-placed on-Isaac son-his and-he-took in-hand(s)-his DDO-the-fire and-DDO-the-knife and-went-they two-those together 7 and-he-said Isaac to-Abraham father-his and-he-said father-my and-he-said behold-me son-my and-he-said behold the-fire and-the-wood and-where the-sheep to-burnt_offering 8 and-he-said Abraham Elohim he-will_see-to-him the-sheep to-burnt_offering son-my and-went-they two-them together 9 and-entered-they to-the-place that he_spoke-to-him the-Elohim and-he-built there Abraham DDO-the-altar and-he-arranged DDO-the-wood and-he-bound DDO-Isaac son-his and-he-put DDO-him on-the-altar from-above to_the-wood 10 and-he-kept Abraham DDO-hand-his and-he-took DDO-the-knife to-slaughter DDO-son-his 11 and-he-called to-him messenger YHWH from-the-heavens and-he-said Abraham Abraham and-he-said behold-me 12 and-he-said negation-keep-you hand-your to-the-boy and-negation-do-you to-him anything because now know-I that-fear Elohim you and-not withhold-you DDO-son-your DDO-only-your from-me 13 and-he-lifted Abraham DDO--eyes-his and-he-saw and-behold-ram behind he_seized in_the-thicket in-horns-his and-he-went Abraham and-he-took DDO-the-ram and-he-sacrified-him to-burnt_offering under son-his 14 and-he-spread Abraham name-the-place that YHWH he-will_see which he-will_say the-day in-mountain YHWH he-will_see

Translation
4. On the third day Abraham lifted [up] his eyes and he saw the place from [a] distance. 5. And Abraham said to his servants, "Stay here with the ass and me and the boy will go further (lit. 'until here') and we will worship. Then I/we1 will return to you." 6. And Abraham took the wood [for] the burnt offering and he gave it to Isaac, his son (lit. 'placed it on Isaac'), and he took the fire and the knife in his hand(s) and they went together (lit. 'those two together'). 7. And Isaac said to Abraham, his father, "Father (lit. 'my father')", and he said, "Here I am, my son." And he [Isaac] said, "I see (lit. 'behold') the fire and the wood, but where is the sheep for (lit. 'to') the burnt offering?" 8. And Abraham said, "God will provide the sheep (lit. 'see to him, the sheep') for the burnt offering, my son." And they went together. 9. And they came to the place which God had spoken [about] (lit. 'had spoken to him'), and he [Abraham] built there an (lit. 'the') altar. And he arranged the wood, and he bound Isaac, his son, and put him on the altar, on top of the wood [lit. 'put him on the altar from above, on the wood']. 10. And Abraham kept his hand2 and he took the knife to slaughter his son. 11. And an angel (or 'messenger') of the Lord called to him and said, "Abraham! Abraham!" and he said, "Here I am!" 12. And he said, "Do not keep your hand to the boy, and do not do anything to him. For, I now know that you fear God. You do not withhold your only son from him (lit. 'me')."3 13. and Abraham lifted up his eyes and and he saw a ram behind [him] caught by it's horns in a thicket. And Abraham went and took the ram and he sacrificed it [as a] burnt offering under his son4 14. And Abraham spread [the] name [of] that place [as] "The Lord Provides" (lit. 'the Lord will see')5, which it is said [from] that day "In the (lit. 'a mountain') mountain the Lord provides."

Notes
  1. It's hard for me to tell if the verb is singular or plural here. For my current knowledge, it seems this could just as easily read "and I will return" as it reads "and we will return".
  2. The meaning was a bit uncertain for me before consulting two different translations (New American and NRSV). It seems to mean that he kept on going through with it. At first I wondered if it meant he hesitated.
  3. I changed the translation here because it seemed more fitting to have "from him" instead of "from me." After all, it is the angel who is talking, but the offering is for God.
  4. The meaning here is a bit uncertain to me. The New American has "in place of his son", and the NRSV is quite similar. Perhaps it means that the ram is being offered up under Isaac's name? It's clear enough it's being offered instead of Isaac, but I wonder the image the Hebrew conjured up for the ancients. :P
  5. The idiom here is interesting. It's quite clear that Abraham intends to name the place, "The Lord Provides" (or "Jehova Jireh"). The image of spreading the name is quite vivid.

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Drink
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Re: księżyc - Readings in Biblical Hebrew

Postby Drink » 2017-05-03, 20:56

I stumbled upon this thread and decided to answer some of your questions.

księżycowy wrote:Notes
  1. It's hard for me to tell if the verb is singular or plural here. For my current knowledge, it seems this could just as easily read "and I will return" as it reads "and we will return".
  2. The meaning was a bit uncertain for me before consulting two different translations (New American and NRSV). It seems to mean that he kept on going through with it. At first I wondered if it meant he hesitated.
  3. I changed the translation here because it seemed more fitting to have "from him" instead of "from me." After all, it is the angel who is talking, but the offering is for God.
  4. The meaning here is a bit uncertain to me. The New American has "in place of his son", and the NRSV is quite similar. Perhaps it means that the ram is being offered up under Isaac's name? It's clear enough it's being offered instead of Isaac, but I wonder the image the Hebrew conjured up for the ancients. :P
  5. The idiom here is interesting. It's quite clear that Abraham intends to name the place, "The Lord Provides" (or "Jehova Jireh"). The image of spreading the name is quite vivid.


  1. It's plural. In the so-called "prefix conjugation", the prefix נ is first-person plural. The first-person singular prefix is א. So if it were singular, it would have been וְאָשׁוּבָה.
  2. Your mistake is that שלח means "send", not "keep". So וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־יָדוֹ means "and he extended (lit. 'sent') his hand".
  3. This is open to interpretation. Keep in mind, "he" might not necessarily refer to the angel. I would say that for a translation, you should keep it as "from me" and let the reader decide what it means.
  4. תחת is used to mean "instead of"/"in place of"/"in exchange for". As in Leviticus 24:20 עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן ("an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth").
  5. This is one of your typos. It should say וַיִּקְרָא, not וַיִּקְרָם. So "And Abraham called the name of that place X, as it is said today 'at Mount X'." (I used "X" in place of the actual name to make the grammar of the sentence more apparent).
שתה וגם גמליך אשקה

księżycowy
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Re: księżyc - Readings in Biblical Hebrew

Postby księżycowy » 2017-05-03, 22:23

Thanks for the answers! I hope you stick around, because I'm sure to have more (including more errors :P ) along the way. :)


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